Abstract

The work here described attempts to locate anatomically and to clarify the nature of dominant nonlinear operators in the human pupillary system for reflex to light. For this work an apparatus was constructed capable of stimulating both eyes simultaneously and recording the pupil diameter of one eye. Short light flashes were used as the input stimulus, and the maximum change in pupil diameter was chosen as the amplitude of response. Results of the experiments (1) confirmed the loglike dependence of response on input-light-flash energy, (2) demonstrated a dependence of response amplitude on duration between pulses in the double-pulse stimulating situation, (3) established the equivalence of response to double-pulse inputs in the cases of monocular and binocular double-pulse presentations, and (4) determined for the monocular and binocular cases the dependence of response amplitude on the amplitude of the second pulse in a double-pulse presentation. The similarity of results of the monocular and binocular cases suggests that the dominating nonlinear operation occurs after the summation of signals from the two eyes. The dependence of response amplitude on duration between pulses is discussed in terms of its implication of central mechanisms.

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  1. L. Stark and P. M. Sherman, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 17 (1957).
  2. J. Stegemann, Arch. Ges. Physiol. 264, 113 (1957).
  3. M. Clynes, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 92, 946 (1961).
  4. L. Stark and F. H. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 22, 156 (1959).
  5. Note added in proof: L. Stark, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 47, 1925 (1959).
  6. L. H. van der Tweel and J. J. D. van der Gon, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 8, 52 (1959).
  7. S. A. Talbot, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Physics, Harvard, January 1938.
  8. Strictly speaking, a physical system is driven by a forcing function acting in time. It is only with acknowledged liberality that we adopt the convention calling energy=∫τ0F(t)dt the driving function for input flux, F, confined to sufficiently short durations, τ.
  9. G. Hakerem and S. Sutton, paper presented at the Second Pupil Colloquium, May 1962, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  10. K. Weiler, Untersuchungen der Pupille und der Irisbewegungen beim Menschen (Julius Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1910).
  11. S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 32, 110 (1943).
  12. L. Bellarminow, Arch. Ges. Physiol. 37 (1885).
  13. H. K. Hartline, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 5, 229 (1934).
  14. J. C. Eccles and J. W. Magladerly, J. Physiol. (London) 90, 31 (1937).
  15. D. Whitteridge, J. Physiol. (London) 89, 99 (1937).
  16. I. H. Wagman and W. S. Battersby, Am. J. Physiol. 197, 1237 (1959).

van der Gon, J. J. D.

L. H. van der Tweel and J. J. D. van der Gon, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 8, 52 (1959).

van der Tweel, L. H.

L. H. van der Tweel and J. J. D. van der Gon, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 8, 52 (1959).

Baker, F. H.

L. Stark and F. H. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 22, 156 (1959).

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 32, 110 (1943).

Battersby, W. S.

I. H. Wagman and W. S. Battersby, Am. J. Physiol. 197, 1237 (1959).

Bellarminow, L.

L. Bellarminow, Arch. Ges. Physiol. 37 (1885).

Clynes, M.

M. Clynes, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 92, 946 (1961).

Eccles, J. C.

J. C. Eccles and J. W. Magladerly, J. Physiol. (London) 90, 31 (1937).

Hakerem, G.

G. Hakerem and S. Sutton, paper presented at the Second Pupil Colloquium, May 1962, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 5, 229 (1934).

Magladerly, J. W.

J. C. Eccles and J. W. Magladerly, J. Physiol. (London) 90, 31 (1937).

Sherman, P. M.

L. Stark and P. M. Sherman, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 17 (1957).

Stark, L.

L. Stark and F. H. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 22, 156 (1959).

Note added in proof: L. Stark, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 47, 1925 (1959).

L. Stark and P. M. Sherman, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 17 (1957).

Stegemann, J.

J. Stegemann, Arch. Ges. Physiol. 264, 113 (1957).

Sutton, S.

G. Hakerem and S. Sutton, paper presented at the Second Pupil Colloquium, May 1962, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Talbot, S. A.

S. A. Talbot, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Physics, Harvard, January 1938.

Wagman, I. H.

I. H. Wagman and W. S. Battersby, Am. J. Physiol. 197, 1237 (1959).

Weiler, K.

K. Weiler, Untersuchungen der Pupille und der Irisbewegungen beim Menschen (Julius Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1910).

Whitteridge, D.

D. Whitteridge, J. Physiol. (London) 89, 99 (1937).

Other (16)

L. Stark and P. M. Sherman, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 17 (1957).

J. Stegemann, Arch. Ges. Physiol. 264, 113 (1957).

M. Clynes, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 92, 946 (1961).

L. Stark and F. H. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 22, 156 (1959).

Note added in proof: L. Stark, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 47, 1925 (1959).

L. H. van der Tweel and J. J. D. van der Gon, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 8, 52 (1959).

S. A. Talbot, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Physics, Harvard, January 1938.

Strictly speaking, a physical system is driven by a forcing function acting in time. It is only with acknowledged liberality that we adopt the convention calling energy=∫τ0F(t)dt the driving function for input flux, F, confined to sufficiently short durations, τ.

G. Hakerem and S. Sutton, paper presented at the Second Pupil Colloquium, May 1962, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

K. Weiler, Untersuchungen der Pupille und der Irisbewegungen beim Menschen (Julius Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1910).

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 32, 110 (1943).

L. Bellarminow, Arch. Ges. Physiol. 37 (1885).

H. K. Hartline, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 5, 229 (1934).

J. C. Eccles and J. W. Magladerly, J. Physiol. (London) 90, 31 (1937).

D. Whitteridge, J. Physiol. (London) 89, 99 (1937).

I. H. Wagman and W. S. Battersby, Am. J. Physiol. 197, 1237 (1959).

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