Abstract

<p>Using intact frog-eye preparations (<i>Rana pipiens</i> and <i>Rana catesbiana</i>) the back of the eyeball was exposed and a microelectrode inserted into the retina. Both the intraretinal electroretinogram (ERG) and the responses of single-ganglion cells were recorded when the eye was stimulated with light flashes in the range of 0.3- to 1.5-sec duration. The responses in the test eye were compared when this eye alone was stimulated and when both eyes were stimulated. The basic experimental design was to alternate binocular and monocular stimulation, always recording the response to the test eye. It was found that under certain circumstances the magnitude of the negative intraretinal ERG was reliably increased when stimulation to the contralateral eye accompanied the test-eye response. Control procedures indicate that this effect is the result of neural interaction between the two eyes, since it cannot be attributed to the consensual pupillary response or to such experimental artifacts as light scatter or of direct response potentials from one eye to the other.</p><p>With respect to the single-unit responses, no units were found that showed responses to contralateral stimulation alone. While there were some units that appeared to show altered response patterns as a result of concurrent contralateral stimulation, no reliable changes across units could be found in the limited sample tested.</p>

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  1. S. Ramon y Cajal, Histologie du systeme nerveux de l'homme et des vertebres (transl. from Spanish by L. Azuolay) (Instituto Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, 1955), Vol. II, pp. 324–325, 366–367.
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  3. H. C. Rozemeyer and J. B. Stolte, Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. 23, 98 (1931).
  4. S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1944), pp. 338–342.
  5. J. A. Armstrong, J. Anat. (London) 85, 275 (1951).
  6. H. R. Maturana, J. Anat. (London) 92, 21 (1958).
  7. R. Granit, "The Visual Pathway," in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. II, Chap. 22, pp. 552–555.
  8. R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 388 (1955).
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  10. R. Granit and E. Marg, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 223 (1958).
  11. J. H. Jacobson and G. F. Gestring, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 362 (1958).
  12. G. S. Brindley and D. I. Hamasaki, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 558 (1962).
  13. S. T. Kitai, Biol. Bull. 119, 323 (1960).
  14. A. Wirth, Boll. Oculistica 30, 499 (1951); E. Auerbach, A. J. Beller, H. E. Henkes, and G. Goldhaber, Vision Res. 1, 166 (1961).
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  22. E. F. MacNichol, Jr., and H. G. Wagner, Res. Rept. Project NM 000 019.03.01. Naval Med. Res. Inst. 12, 97 (1954).
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  24. M. Monnier, Experientia 2, 190 (1946). L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949). E. Marg, Am. J. Optom. 30, 417 (1953).
  25. W. Harris, Brain 27, 107 (1904). G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye and its Adaptive Radiations (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 157–158.

Bouman, M. A.

M. A. Bouman, Opt. Acta 1, 177 (1955). G. L. Kandel, A Psychophysical Study of Some Monocular and Binocular Factors in Early Adaptation (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1958); referred to by R. M. Boynton, "Some Temporal Factors in Vision," in Sensory Communication, edited by W. Rosenblith (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), Chap. 37, pp. 739–756.

Harris, W.

W. Harris, Brain 27, 107 (1904). G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye and its Adaptive Radiations (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 157–158.

Monnier, M.

M. Monnier, Experientia 2, 190 (1946). L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949). E. Marg, Am. J. Optom. 30, 417 (1953).

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, J. Anat. (London) 85, 275 (1951).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley and D. I. Hamasaki, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 558 (1962).

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 149, 537 (1959). B. S. Gurian and L. A. Riggs, Exptl. Neurol. 2, 191 (1960). E. Dzendolet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 903 (1960).

Cajal, S. Ramon y

S. Ramon y Cajal, Histologie du systeme nerveux de l'homme et des vertebres (transl. from Spanish by L. Azuolay) (Instituto Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, 1955), Vol. II, pp. 324–325, 366–367.

Dodt, E.

E. Dodt, J. Neurophysiol. 19, 301 (1956).

Dogiel, A. S.

A. S. Dogiel, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 44, 622 (1895).

Fechner, G. T.

G. T. Fechner, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Classe Konig. Sachs. Ges. Wiss. 7, 337 (1860).

Gestring, G. F.

J. H. Jacobson and G. F. Gestring, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 362 (1958).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 388 (1955).

R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1955), Chap. 5, p. 153. G. P. M. Horsten, F. N. Wildeboer-Venema, and J. E. Winkelman, Arch. Intern. Physiol. Biochim. 69, 431 (1961).

R. Granit and E. Marg, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 223 (1958).

R. Granit, "The Visual Pathway," in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. II, Chap. 22, pp. 552–555.

Green, J. D.

J. D. Green, Nature 182, 962 (1958).

Hamasaki, D. I.

G. S. Brindley and D. I. Hamasaki, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 558 (1962).

Jacobson, J. H.

J. H. Jacobson and G. F. Gestring, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 362 (1958).

Kitai, S. T.

S. T. Kitai, Biol. Bull. 119, 323 (1960).

Kohata, T.

K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).

MacNichol, Jr., E. F.

E. F. MacNichol, Jr., and H. G. Wagner, Res. Rept. Project NM 000 019.03.01. Naval Med. Res. Inst. 12, 97 (1954).

Marg, E.

R. Granit and E. Marg, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 223 (1958).

Maturana, H. R.

H. R. Maturana, J. Anat. (London) 92, 21 (1958).

Motokawa, K.

K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).

Müller-Limmroth, W.

W. Müller-Limmroth, Z. Biol. 107, 216 (1954).

Nakagawa, D.

K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).

Polyak, S.

S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1944), pp. 338–342.

Rozemeyer, H. C.

H. C. Rozemeyer and J. B. Stolte, Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. 23, 98 (1931).

Stolte, J. B.

H. C. Rozemeyer and J. B. Stolte, Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. 23, 98 (1931).

Uchermann, A.

A. Uchermann, Acta Ophthalmol. 33, 517 (1955).

Wagner, H. G.

E. F. MacNichol, Jr., and H. G. Wagner, Res. Rept. Project NM 000 019.03.01. Naval Med. Res. Inst. 12, 97 (1954).

Wiesel, T. N.

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 149, 537 (1959). B. S. Gurian and L. A. Riggs, Exptl. Neurol. 2, 191 (1960). E. Dzendolet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 903 (1960).

Other (25)

S. Ramon y Cajal, Histologie du systeme nerveux de l'homme et des vertebres (transl. from Spanish by L. Azuolay) (Instituto Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, 1955), Vol. II, pp. 324–325, 366–367.

A. S. Dogiel, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 44, 622 (1895).

H. C. Rozemeyer and J. B. Stolte, Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. 23, 98 (1931).

S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1944), pp. 338–342.

J. A. Armstrong, J. Anat. (London) 85, 275 (1951).

H. R. Maturana, J. Anat. (London) 92, 21 (1958).

R. Granit, "The Visual Pathway," in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. II, Chap. 22, pp. 552–555.

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 388 (1955).

E. Dodt, J. Neurophysiol. 19, 301 (1956).

R. Granit and E. Marg, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 223 (1958).

J. H. Jacobson and G. F. Gestring, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 362 (1958).

G. S. Brindley and D. I. Hamasaki, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 558 (1962).

S. T. Kitai, Biol. Bull. 119, 323 (1960).

A. Wirth, Boll. Oculistica 30, 499 (1951); E. Auerbach, A. J. Beller, H. E. Henkes, and G. Goldhaber, Vision Res. 1, 166 (1961).

A. Uchermann, Acta Ophthalmol. 33, 517 (1955).

K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).

R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1955), Chap. 5, p. 153. G. P. M. Horsten, F. N. Wildeboer-Venema, and J. E. Winkelman, Arch. Intern. Physiol. Biochim. 69, 431 (1961).

W. Müller-Limmroth, Z. Biol. 107, 216 (1954).

G. T. Fechner, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Classe Konig. Sachs. Ges. Wiss. 7, 337 (1860).

M. A. Bouman, Opt. Acta 1, 177 (1955). G. L. Kandel, A Psychophysical Study of Some Monocular and Binocular Factors in Early Adaptation (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1958); referred to by R. M. Boynton, "Some Temporal Factors in Vision," in Sensory Communication, edited by W. Rosenblith (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), Chap. 37, pp. 739–756.

J. D. Green, Nature 182, 962 (1958).

E. F. MacNichol, Jr., and H. G. Wagner, Res. Rept. Project NM 000 019.03.01. Naval Med. Res. Inst. 12, 97 (1954).

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 149, 537 (1959). B. S. Gurian and L. A. Riggs, Exptl. Neurol. 2, 191 (1960). E. Dzendolet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 903 (1960).

M. Monnier, Experientia 2, 190 (1946). L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949). E. Marg, Am. J. Optom. 30, 417 (1953).

W. Harris, Brain 27, 107 (1904). G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye and its Adaptive Radiations (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 157–158.

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