Abstract

Using intact frog-eye preparations (Rana pipiens and Rana catesbiana) the back of the eyeball was exposed and a microelectrode inserted into the retina. Both the intraretinal electroretinogram (ERG) and the responses of single-ganglion cells were recorded when the eye was stimulated with light flashes in the range of 0.3- to 1.5-sec duration. The responses in the test eye were compared when this eye alone was stimulated and when both eyes were stimulated. The basic experimental design was to alternate binocular and monocular stimulation, always recording the response to the test eye. It was found that under certain circumstances the magnitude of the negative intraretinal ERG was reliably increased when stimulation to the contralateral eye accompanied the test-eye response. Control procedures indicate that this effect is the result of neural interaction between the two eyes, since it cannot be attributed to the consensual pupillary response or to such experimental artifacts as light scatter or of direct response potentials from one eye to the other.

With respect to the single-unit responses, no units were found that showed responses to contralateral stimulation alone. While there were some units that appeared to show altered response patterns as a result of concurrent contralateral stimulation, no reliable changes across units could be found in the limited sample tested.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Ramon y Cajal, Histologie du systeme nerveux de l’homme et des vertebres (transl. from Spanish by L. Azuolay) (Instituto Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, 1955), Vol. II, pp. 324–325, 366–367.
  2. A. S. Dogiel, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 44, 622 (1895).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. C. Rozemeyer and J. B. Stolte, Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. 23, 98 (1931).
  4. S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1944), pp. 338–342.
  5. J. A. Armstrong, J. Anat. (London) 85, 275 (1951).
  6. H. R. Maturana, J. Anat. (London) 92, 21 (1958).
  7. R. Granit, “The Visual Pathway,” in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. II, Chap. 22, pp. 552–555.
  8. R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 388 (1955).
    [PubMed]
  9. E. Dodt, J. Neurophysiol. 19, 301 (1956).
    [PubMed]
  10. R. Granit and E. Marg, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 223 (1958).
  11. J. H. Jacobson and G. F. Gestring, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 362 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. S. Brindley and D. I. Hamasaki, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 558 (1962).
  13. S. T. Kitai, Biol. Bull. 119, 323 (1960).
  14. A. Wirth, Boll. Oculistica 30, 499 (1951); E. Auerbach, A. J. Beller, H. E. Henkes, and G. Goldhaber, Vision Res. 1, 166 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Uchermann, Acta Ophthalmol. 33, 517 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1955), Chap. 5, p. 153. G. P. M. Horsten, F. N. Wildeboer-Venema, and J. E. Winkelman, Arch. Intern. Physiol. Biochim. 69, 431 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Müller-Limmroth, Z. Biol. 107, 216 (1954).
  19. G. T. Fechner, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Classe Konig. Sachs. Ges. Wiss. 7, 337 (1860).
  20. M. A. Bouman, Opt. Acta 1, 177 (1955). G. L. Kandel, A Psychophysical Study of Some Monocular and Binocular Factors in Early Adaptation (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1958); referred to by R. M. Boynton, “Some Temporal Factors in Vision,” in Sensory Communication, edited by W. Rosenblith (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), Chap. 37, pp. 739–756.
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. D. Green, Nature 182, 962 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. F. MacNichol and H. G. Wagner, Res. Rept. Project NM 000 019.03.01. Naval Med. Res. Inst.12, 97 (1954).
  23. K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 149, 537 (1959). B. S. Gurian and L. A. Riggs, Exptl. Neurol. 2, 191 (1960). E. Dzendolet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 903 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Monnier, Experientia 2, 190 (1946). L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949). E. Marg, Am. J. Optom. 30, 417 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Harris, Brain 27, 107 (1904). G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye and its Adaptive Radiations (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 157–158.
    [CrossRef]

1962 (1)

G. S. Brindley and D. I. Hamasaki, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 558 (1962).

1960 (1)

S. T. Kitai, Biol. Bull. 119, 323 (1960).

1959 (1)

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 149, 537 (1959). B. S. Gurian and L. A. Riggs, Exptl. Neurol. 2, 191 (1960). E. Dzendolet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 903 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1958 (4)

H. R. Maturana, J. Anat. (London) 92, 21 (1958).

R. Granit and E. Marg, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 223 (1958).

J. H. Jacobson and G. F. Gestring, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 362 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Green, Nature 182, 962 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1956 (2)

E. Dodt, J. Neurophysiol. 19, 301 (1956).
[PubMed]

K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955 (3)

A. Uchermann, Acta Ophthalmol. 33, 517 (1955).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouman, Opt. Acta 1, 177 (1955). G. L. Kandel, A Psychophysical Study of Some Monocular and Binocular Factors in Early Adaptation (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1958); referred to by R. M. Boynton, “Some Temporal Factors in Vision,” in Sensory Communication, edited by W. Rosenblith (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), Chap. 37, pp. 739–756.
[CrossRef]

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 388 (1955).
[PubMed]

1954 (1)

W. Müller-Limmroth, Z. Biol. 107, 216 (1954).

1951 (2)

A. Wirth, Boll. Oculistica 30, 499 (1951); E. Auerbach, A. J. Beller, H. E. Henkes, and G. Goldhaber, Vision Res. 1, 166 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, J. Anat. (London) 85, 275 (1951).

1946 (1)

M. Monnier, Experientia 2, 190 (1946). L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949). E. Marg, Am. J. Optom. 30, 417 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

H. C. Rozemeyer and J. B. Stolte, Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. 23, 98 (1931).

1904 (1)

W. Harris, Brain 27, 107 (1904). G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye and its Adaptive Radiations (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 157–158.
[CrossRef]

1895 (1)

A. S. Dogiel, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 44, 622 (1895).
[CrossRef]

1860 (1)

G. T. Fechner, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Classe Konig. Sachs. Ges. Wiss. 7, 337 (1860).

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, J. Anat. (London) 85, 275 (1951).

Bouman, M. A.

M. A. Bouman, Opt. Acta 1, 177 (1955). G. L. Kandel, A Psychophysical Study of Some Monocular and Binocular Factors in Early Adaptation (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1958); referred to by R. M. Boynton, “Some Temporal Factors in Vision,” in Sensory Communication, edited by W. Rosenblith (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), Chap. 37, pp. 739–756.
[CrossRef]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley and D. I. Hamasaki, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 558 (1962).

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 149, 537 (1959). B. S. Gurian and L. A. Riggs, Exptl. Neurol. 2, 191 (1960). E. Dzendolet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 903 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Dodt, E.

E. Dodt, J. Neurophysiol. 19, 301 (1956).
[PubMed]

Dogiel, A. S.

A. S. Dogiel, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 44, 622 (1895).
[CrossRef]

Fechner, G. T.

G. T. Fechner, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Classe Konig. Sachs. Ges. Wiss. 7, 337 (1860).

Gestring, G. F.

J. H. Jacobson and G. F. Gestring, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 362 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Granit, R.

R. Granit and E. Marg, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 223 (1958).

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 388 (1955).
[PubMed]

R. Granit, “The Visual Pathway,” in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. II, Chap. 22, pp. 552–555.

R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1955), Chap. 5, p. 153. G. P. M. Horsten, F. N. Wildeboer-Venema, and J. E. Winkelman, Arch. Intern. Physiol. Biochim. 69, 431 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. D.

J. D. Green, Nature 182, 962 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Hamasaki, D. I.

G. S. Brindley and D. I. Hamasaki, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 558 (1962).

Harris, W.

W. Harris, Brain 27, 107 (1904). G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye and its Adaptive Radiations (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 157–158.
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, J. H.

J. H. Jacobson and G. F. Gestring, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 362 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Kitai, S. T.

S. T. Kitai, Biol. Bull. 119, 323 (1960).

Kohata, T.

K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacNichol, E. F.

E. F. MacNichol and H. G. Wagner, Res. Rept. Project NM 000 019.03.01. Naval Med. Res. Inst.12, 97 (1954).

Marg, E.

R. Granit and E. Marg, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 223 (1958).

Maturana, H. R.

H. R. Maturana, J. Anat. (London) 92, 21 (1958).

Monnier, M.

M. Monnier, Experientia 2, 190 (1946). L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949). E. Marg, Am. J. Optom. 30, 417 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Motokawa, K.

K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller-Limmroth, W.

W. Müller-Limmroth, Z. Biol. 107, 216 (1954).

Nakagawa, D.

K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polyak, S.

S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1944), pp. 338–342.

Ramon y Cajal, S.

S. Ramon y Cajal, Histologie du systeme nerveux de l’homme et des vertebres (transl. from Spanish by L. Azuolay) (Instituto Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, 1955), Vol. II, pp. 324–325, 366–367.

Rozemeyer, H. C.

H. C. Rozemeyer and J. B. Stolte, Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. 23, 98 (1931).

Stolte, J. B.

H. C. Rozemeyer and J. B. Stolte, Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. 23, 98 (1931).

Uchermann, A.

A. Uchermann, Acta Ophthalmol. 33, 517 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, H. G.

E. F. MacNichol and H. G. Wagner, Res. Rept. Project NM 000 019.03.01. Naval Med. Res. Inst.12, 97 (1954).

Wiesel, T. N.

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 149, 537 (1959). B. S. Gurian and L. A. Riggs, Exptl. Neurol. 2, 191 (1960). E. Dzendolet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 903 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, A.

A. Wirth, Boll. Oculistica 30, 499 (1951); E. Auerbach, A. J. Beller, H. E. Henkes, and G. Goldhaber, Vision Res. 1, 166 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Classe Konig. Sachs. Ges. Wiss. (1)

G. T. Fechner, Abhandl. Math.-Phys. Classe Konig. Sachs. Ges. Wiss. 7, 337 (1860).

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Uchermann, Acta Ophthalmol. 33, 517 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. Granit and E. Marg, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 223 (1958).

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. H. Jacobson and G. F. Gestring, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 362 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Mikr. Anat. (1)

A. S. Dogiel, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 44, 622 (1895).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Bull. (1)

S. T. Kitai, Biol. Bull. 119, 323 (1960).

Boll. Oculistica (1)

A. Wirth, Boll. Oculistica 30, 499 (1951); E. Auerbach, A. J. Beller, H. E. Henkes, and G. Goldhaber, Vision Res. 1, 166 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Brain (1)

W. Harris, Brain 27, 107 (1904). G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye and its Adaptive Radiations (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 157–158.
[CrossRef]

Experientia (1)

M. Monnier, Experientia 2, 190 (1946). L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949). E. Marg, Am. J. Optom. 30, 417 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Anat. (London) (2)

J. A. Armstrong, J. Anat. (London) 85, 275 (1951).

H. R. Maturana, J. Anat. (London) 92, 21 (1958).

J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. (1)

K. Motokawa, D. Nakagawa, and T. Kohata, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 398 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (2)

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 18, 388 (1955).
[PubMed]

E. Dodt, J. Neurophysiol. 19, 301 (1956).
[PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

G. S. Brindley and D. I. Hamasaki, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 558 (1962).

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 149, 537 (1959). B. S. Gurian and L. A. Riggs, Exptl. Neurol. 2, 191 (1960). E. Dzendolet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 903 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. D. Green, Nature 182, 962 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

M. A. Bouman, Opt. Acta 1, 177 (1955). G. L. Kandel, A Psychophysical Study of Some Monocular and Binocular Factors in Early Adaptation (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1958); referred to by R. M. Boynton, “Some Temporal Factors in Vision,” in Sensory Communication, edited by W. Rosenblith (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), Chap. 37, pp. 739–756.
[CrossRef]

Z. Biol. (1)

W. Müller-Limmroth, Z. Biol. 107, 216 (1954).

Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. (1)

H. C. Rozemeyer and J. B. Stolte, Z. Mikr. Anat. Forsch. 23, 98 (1931).

Other (5)

S. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1944), pp. 338–342.

R. Granit, “The Visual Pathway,” in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. II, Chap. 22, pp. 552–555.

S. Ramon y Cajal, Histologie du systeme nerveux de l’homme et des vertebres (transl. from Spanish by L. Azuolay) (Instituto Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, 1955), Vol. II, pp. 324–325, 366–367.

R. Granit, Receptors and Sensory Perception (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1955), Chap. 5, p. 153. G. P. M. Horsten, F. N. Wildeboer-Venema, and J. E. Winkelman, Arch. Intern. Physiol. Biochim. 69, 431 (1961).
[CrossRef]

E. F. MacNichol and H. G. Wagner, Res. Rept. Project NM 000 019.03.01. Naval Med. Res. Inst.12, 97 (1954).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the optical system. L refers to lens, T to independent source, S to the shutter stop, M to mirror, and B to beam splitter. The light entered the test and contralateral eyes, through the normal optics of the eyes, passing through lenses L7 and L6, respectively. The right eye was always the eye from which records were made.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Several tracings of the intraretinal ERG for records 111161 prior to HCl administration. Records read from left to right in time. The black lines under each trace indicate the onset and duration of the test (0.5 sec) and the contralateral (1.5 sec) flashes. Numbers at left indicate order in the series. Note that alternate records (trials with binocular stimulation) show an increase in the magnitude of the negative intraretinal ERG. Tracings at the bottom show no response from the contralateral stimulation alone. The occasional dips in these tracings are the result of cardiac response, having no relationship to the light stimulation. Test flashes are one-tenth of maximum intensity. The interval between test flashes was 1 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Magnitude of intraretinal ERG as a function of trials within four series determined at one electrode placement. The test-eye response alone is recorded throughout. Single refers to monocular stimulation and double refers to binocular stimulation. Note the alternation in conditions with alternate flashes. Two series of test responses were measured, one at each of two intensity levels before HCl was administered to the contralateral optic nerve. This pair of series was repeated after the nerve block was applied. A is the duration of the contralateral light (binocular trials only); B is the test-flash duration (monocular and binocular trials); and C is the interval between the onsets of two flashes (binocular trials). The interval between flash presentations was 1 min. 1 log and 2 log refer to test-light intensity one-tenth and one-hundredth the maximum. The contralateral light was at its maximum intensity for all series.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differences in the mean magnitude of the intraretinal ERG between trials under monocular- and binocular-stimulation conditions as a function of the interval between the onset of the contralateral flash and the onset of the test flash (c interval) in seconds. The left portion shows the results from test conditions with the contralateral nerve still intact. The triangles and filled circles are from different preparations. The three open circles are from one preparation, while the two points shown as squares are from two series from another preparation. The right portion represents the results of control procedures for those series that showed a reliable increase in the magnitude of the intraretinal ERG, under test conditions. Each symbol that is the same on the two sides of the graph refers to the same electrode location and conditions of stimulation.