Abstract

The total radiant flux from a solution containing a radioactive compound, hexadecane-l-C<sub>14</sub>, plus an appropriate scintillator has been determined. The procedure used involves comparison of its luminescent emission with the light scattered by glycogen illuminated with a monochromatic homogeneous light beam of known photon flux. From the result obtained the scintillation quantum yield of a β<sup>-</sup> disintegration from carbon 14 has been determined to be 793 photons; thus 5.25% of the energy appears as light.

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  1. A homogeneous source is one in which the flux per unit volume of source is constant over any small portion of it.
  2. An isotropic source is one in which the flux is independent of the direction considered.
  3. C. G. Hatchard and C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A235, 518 (1956).
  4. G. Weber and F. W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 646(1957).
  5. E. J. Bowen, Proc. Roy Soc. (London) A154, 349 (1936).
  6. C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A220, 104 (1953).
  7. A. Keynan and J. W. Hastings, Biol. Bull. 121, 375 (1961).
  8. E. N. Harvey, Bioluminescence (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1952).
  9. J. B. Birks and K. N. Kuchela, Proc. Phys. Soc. 77, 1083 (1961).
  10. G. Weber and F. W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 640 (1958).
  11. R. K. Swank, W. L. Buck, F. N. Haynes, and D. G. Ott, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 279 (1958).
  12. J. B. Birks and I. H. Munro, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 519 (1961).
  13. Three grams of 2:5 diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 50 mg of 2-2′ p-phenylbis (5 phenyloxazole) (POPOP) per liter of toluene.
  14. Although this intensity was near the sensitivity limit of our instrument, the exact value was verified by measurements of more concentrated standards prior to qualitative dilution.
  15. Packard Instrument Company, La Grange, Illinois.
  16. G. H. Jenks and F. H. Sweeton, Phys. Rev. 86, 803 (1952).
  17. B. L. Funt and A. Hetherington, Science 131, 1608 (1960).
  18. Available from Nuclear Enterprises Ltd., 550 Berry Street, Winnepeg 21, Canada.
  19. M. J. Cormier and J. R. Totter, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 25, 229 (1957).
  20. H. H. Seliger and W. D. McElroy, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 88, 136 (1960).
  21. F. H. Johnson, Q. Shimomura, Y. Saiga, L. C. Gershman, G. T. Reynolds, and J. R. Waters, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 60, 85 (1962).
  22. W. Terpstra, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 60, 580 (1962).
  23. J W. Hastings and Q. H. Gibson, J. Biol. Chem. 238, 2537 (1963).

Birks, J. B.

J. B. Birks and K. N. Kuchela, Proc. Phys. Soc. 77, 1083 (1961).

J. B. Birks and I. H. Munro, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 519 (1961).

Bowen, E. J.

E. J. Bowen, Proc. Roy Soc. (London) A154, 349 (1936).

Buck, W. L.

R. K. Swank, W. L. Buck, F. N. Haynes, and D. G. Ott, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 279 (1958).

Cormier, M. J.

M. J. Cormier and J. R. Totter, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 25, 229 (1957).

Funt, B. L.

B. L. Funt and A. Hetherington, Science 131, 1608 (1960).

Gershman, L. C.

F. H. Johnson, Q. Shimomura, Y. Saiga, L. C. Gershman, G. T. Reynolds, and J. R. Waters, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 60, 85 (1962).

Gibson, Q. H.

J W. Hastings and Q. H. Gibson, J. Biol. Chem. 238, 2537 (1963).

Harvey, E. N.

E. N. Harvey, Bioluminescence (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1952).

Hastings, J W.

J W. Hastings and Q. H. Gibson, J. Biol. Chem. 238, 2537 (1963).

Hastings, J. W.

A. Keynan and J. W. Hastings, Biol. Bull. 121, 375 (1961).

Hatchard, C. G.

C. G. Hatchard and C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A235, 518 (1956).

Haynes, F. N.

R. K. Swank, W. L. Buck, F. N. Haynes, and D. G. Ott, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 279 (1958).

Hetherington, A.

B. L. Funt and A. Hetherington, Science 131, 1608 (1960).

Jenks, G. H.

G. H. Jenks and F. H. Sweeton, Phys. Rev. 86, 803 (1952).

Johnson, F. H.

F. H. Johnson, Q. Shimomura, Y. Saiga, L. C. Gershman, G. T. Reynolds, and J. R. Waters, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 60, 85 (1962).

Keynan, A.

A. Keynan and J. W. Hastings, Biol. Bull. 121, 375 (1961).

Kuchela, K. N.

J. B. Birks and K. N. Kuchela, Proc. Phys. Soc. 77, 1083 (1961).

McElroy, W. D.

H. H. Seliger and W. D. McElroy, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 88, 136 (1960).

Munro, I. H.

J. B. Birks and I. H. Munro, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 519 (1961).

Ott, D. G.

R. K. Swank, W. L. Buck, F. N. Haynes, and D. G. Ott, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 279 (1958).

Parker, C. A.

C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A220, 104 (1953).

C. G. Hatchard and C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A235, 518 (1956).

Reynolds, G. T.

F. H. Johnson, Q. Shimomura, Y. Saiga, L. C. Gershman, G. T. Reynolds, and J. R. Waters, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 60, 85 (1962).

Saiga, Y.

F. H. Johnson, Q. Shimomura, Y. Saiga, L. C. Gershman, G. T. Reynolds, and J. R. Waters, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 60, 85 (1962).

Seliger, H. H.

H. H. Seliger and W. D. McElroy, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 88, 136 (1960).

Shimomura, Q.

F. H. Johnson, Q. Shimomura, Y. Saiga, L. C. Gershman, G. T. Reynolds, and J. R. Waters, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 60, 85 (1962).

Swank, R. K.

R. K. Swank, W. L. Buck, F. N. Haynes, and D. G. Ott, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 279 (1958).

Sweeton, F. H.

G. H. Jenks and F. H. Sweeton, Phys. Rev. 86, 803 (1952).

Teale, F. W. J.

G. Weber and F. W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 646(1957).

G. Weber and F. W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 640 (1958).

Terpstra, W.

W. Terpstra, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 60, 580 (1962).

Totter, J. R.

M. J. Cormier and J. R. Totter, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 25, 229 (1957).

Waters, J. R.

F. H. Johnson, Q. Shimomura, Y. Saiga, L. C. Gershman, G. T. Reynolds, and J. R. Waters, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 60, 85 (1962).

Weber, G.

G. Weber and F. W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 640 (1958).

G. Weber and F. W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 646(1957).

Other

A homogeneous source is one in which the flux per unit volume of source is constant over any small portion of it.

An isotropic source is one in which the flux is independent of the direction considered.

C. G. Hatchard and C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A235, 518 (1956).

G. Weber and F. W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 646(1957).

E. J. Bowen, Proc. Roy Soc. (London) A154, 349 (1936).

C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A220, 104 (1953).

A. Keynan and J. W. Hastings, Biol. Bull. 121, 375 (1961).

E. N. Harvey, Bioluminescence (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1952).

J. B. Birks and K. N. Kuchela, Proc. Phys. Soc. 77, 1083 (1961).

G. Weber and F. W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 640 (1958).

R. K. Swank, W. L. Buck, F. N. Haynes, and D. G. Ott, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 279 (1958).

J. B. Birks and I. H. Munro, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 519 (1961).

Three grams of 2:5 diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 50 mg of 2-2′ p-phenylbis (5 phenyloxazole) (POPOP) per liter of toluene.

Although this intensity was near the sensitivity limit of our instrument, the exact value was verified by measurements of more concentrated standards prior to qualitative dilution.

Packard Instrument Company, La Grange, Illinois.

G. H. Jenks and F. H. Sweeton, Phys. Rev. 86, 803 (1952).

B. L. Funt and A. Hetherington, Science 131, 1608 (1960).

Available from Nuclear Enterprises Ltd., 550 Berry Street, Winnepeg 21, Canada.

M. J. Cormier and J. R. Totter, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 25, 229 (1957).

H. H. Seliger and W. D. McElroy, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 88, 136 (1960).

F. H. Johnson, Q. Shimomura, Y. Saiga, L. C. Gershman, G. T. Reynolds, and J. R. Waters, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 60, 85 (1962).

W. Terpstra, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 60, 580 (1962).

J W. Hastings and Q. H. Gibson, J. Biol. Chem. 238, 2537 (1963).

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