Abstract

A new method for the study of color vision is introduced where two test flashes are used in an incrementthreshold experiment. <i>Summation index</i> is defined as the logarithm of the factor by which threshold is reduced when the two light flashes are presented together in the ratio of their individual threshold radiances. When the wavelength of one test flash is fixed at 630 mµ and the wavelength of the other flash is varied, a summation- index curve can be drawn as a function of the wavelength of the second flash. This curve is assumed to reveal the interrelations between the underlying mechanisms for color discrimination which are stimulated by the first test flash and the second test flash, respectively. Two different durations of the test flash are employed and two different summation-index curves are obtained. It is found that under certain conditions the summation index becomes smaller than that predicted by probability summation, which suggests an inhibition between two mechanisms. With the aid of the experimental spectral sensitivity curves obtained under the same adapting conditions as above, the summation-index curves are interpreted with the hell) of conceptions of opponent-colors theory.

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  1. For the latest summary of Stiles' work, see W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 45, 100 (1959).
  2. Thorough discussion on Stiles' experiment is found in W. S. Stiles, Union Intern. Phys. Appl. (Madrid) 1, 65 (1953).
  3. Stiles called these "tvi" curves (threshold vs intensity); this change is employed to accord with modern usage of radiance as the appropriate concept for fields having a finite area.
  4. Introduction of this new method is due to Stiles. Formulations to follow are also due to him.
  5. For example, R. M. Boynton, G. Kandel, and J. Onley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 654 (1959).
  6. The apparatus actually used for the present experiment had five main channels, I, II, III, IV, and V, for other purposes as well. Here only three of them are shown.
  7. W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).
  8. In the present experiment the probability-of-seeing curve is not available for each mechanism. It is assumed instead that one experimentally obtained probability-of-seeing curve can be generalized for all mechanisms. Circles in Fig. 8(a) where a probability of seeing is shown by py, were obtained from subject MI under the same conditions of adaptation as in the present experiment, with a test stimulus of 500 mµ, but with a duration of 200 msec.
  9. D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. U. S. 42, 1 (1949).
  10. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546, 602 (1955); ibid. 46, 405, 416 (1956); Psychol. Rev. 64, 384 (1957); in Visual Problems of Colour (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1958), Vol. 2, p. 691.
  11. R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 929 (1960).
  12. G. Svaetichin, Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 134, 17 (1956).
  13. E. F. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).
  14. H. G. Wagner, E. F. MacNichol, and M. L. Wolbarsht, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 45 (1960).
  15. K. Motokawa, T. Oikawa, and K. Tasaki, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 186 (1957).
  16. T. Tomita, T. Tosaka, K. Watanabe, and Y. Sato, Japan. J. Physiol. 8, 41 (1958).
  17. D. H. Huebel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. 154, 572 (1960).
  18. R. L. DeValois, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 115 (1960).
  19. M. Ikeda and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 697 (1962).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 929 (1960).

M. Ikeda and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 697 (1962).

For example, R. M. Boynton, G. Kandel, and J. Onley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 654 (1959).

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 115 (1960).

Huebel, D. H.

D. H. Huebel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. 154, 572 (1960).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546, 602 (1955); ibid. 46, 405, 416 (1956); Psychol. Rev. 64, 384 (1957); in Visual Problems of Colour (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1958), Vol. 2, p. 691.

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 697 (1962).

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546, 602 (1955); ibid. 46, 405, 416 (1956); Psychol. Rev. 64, 384 (1957); in Visual Problems of Colour (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1958), Vol. 2, p. 691.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. U. S. 42, 1 (1949).

Kandel, G.

For example, R. M. Boynton, G. Kandel, and J. Onley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 654 (1959).

MacNichol, E. F.

H. G. Wagner, E. F. MacNichol, and M. L. Wolbarsht, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 45 (1960).

E. F. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

Motokawa, K.

K. Motokawa, T. Oikawa, and K. Tasaki, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 186 (1957).

Oikawa, T.

K. Motokawa, T. Oikawa, and K. Tasaki, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 186 (1957).

Onley, J.

For example, R. M. Boynton, G. Kandel, and J. Onley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 654 (1959).

Sato, Y.

T. Tomita, T. Tosaka, K. Watanabe, and Y. Sato, Japan. J. Physiol. 8, 41 (1958).

Stiles, W. S.

For the latest summary of Stiles' work, see W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 45, 100 (1959).

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).

Thorough discussion on Stiles' experiment is found in W. S. Stiles, Union Intern. Phys. Appl. (Madrid) 1, 65 (1953).

Svaetichin, G.

G. Svaetichin, Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 134, 17 (1956).

E. F. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

Tasaki, K.

K. Motokawa, T. Oikawa, and K. Tasaki, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 186 (1957).

Tomita, T.

T. Tomita, T. Tosaka, K. Watanabe, and Y. Sato, Japan. J. Physiol. 8, 41 (1958).

Tosaka, T.

T. Tomita, T. Tosaka, K. Watanabe, and Y. Sato, Japan. J. Physiol. 8, 41 (1958).

Wagner, H. G.

H. G. Wagner, E. F. MacNichol, and M. L. Wolbarsht, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 45 (1960).

Watanabe, K.

T. Tomita, T. Tosaka, K. Watanabe, and Y. Sato, Japan. J. Physiol. 8, 41 (1958).

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Huebel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. 154, 572 (1960).

Wolbarsht, M. L.

H. G. Wagner, E. F. MacNichol, and M. L. Wolbarsht, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 45 (1960).

Other

For the latest summary of Stiles' work, see W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 45, 100 (1959).

Thorough discussion on Stiles' experiment is found in W. S. Stiles, Union Intern. Phys. Appl. (Madrid) 1, 65 (1953).

Stiles called these "tvi" curves (threshold vs intensity); this change is employed to accord with modern usage of radiance as the appropriate concept for fields having a finite area.

Introduction of this new method is due to Stiles. Formulations to follow are also due to him.

For example, R. M. Boynton, G. Kandel, and J. Onley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 654 (1959).

The apparatus actually used for the present experiment had five main channels, I, II, III, IV, and V, for other purposes as well. Here only three of them are shown.

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).

In the present experiment the probability-of-seeing curve is not available for each mechanism. It is assumed instead that one experimentally obtained probability-of-seeing curve can be generalized for all mechanisms. Circles in Fig. 8(a) where a probability of seeing is shown by py, were obtained from subject MI under the same conditions of adaptation as in the present experiment, with a test stimulus of 500 mµ, but with a duration of 200 msec.

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. U. S. 42, 1 (1949).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546, 602 (1955); ibid. 46, 405, 416 (1956); Psychol. Rev. 64, 384 (1957); in Visual Problems of Colour (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1958), Vol. 2, p. 691.

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 929 (1960).

G. Svaetichin, Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 134, 17 (1956).

E. F. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

H. G. Wagner, E. F. MacNichol, and M. L. Wolbarsht, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 45 (1960).

K. Motokawa, T. Oikawa, and K. Tasaki, J. Neurophysiol. 20, 186 (1957).

T. Tomita, T. Tosaka, K. Watanabe, and Y. Sato, Japan. J. Physiol. 8, 41 (1958).

D. H. Huebel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. 154, 572 (1960).

R. L. DeValois, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 115 (1960).

M. Ikeda and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 697 (1962).

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