Abstract

Experiments show that there are limiting delay times between the exposures of test stimuli to one eye and then to the other, beyond which stereoscopic depth perception does not occur. In the present experiments these limiting delay times are determined under photopic conditions in several different ways, principally for variations in exposure times. The limiting delay times are used in a model to define a duration of cortical excitations in those areas of the cortex where stimuli from the two eyes are received and utilized for stereoscopic depth perception. The minimal limiting delay measured from the beginning of the exposure to one eye to the beginning of the exposure to the other eye (equivalent to duration of cortical excitation) was about 100 msec. This limiting delay then increased, slowly at first, with increase of exposure time up to about 250 msec. Increased luminance of test stimuli reduced the limiting delay times, but repetitive exposures increased these times, as would be expected.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. N. Ogle, “On Stereoscopic Depth Perception,” J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 225 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. N. Ogle, “Basis of Stereoscopic Vision,” A.M.A. Arch. Ophth. 52, 197 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Th. Guilloz, “Sur la stéréoscopie obtenue par les visions consécutives d’images monoculaires,” Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 56, 1053 (1904).
  4. J. R. Ewald and Oscar Gross, “Über Stereoskopie und Pseudoskopie,” Arch. Ges. Physiol. 115, 514 (1906).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. N. Ogle and Louise Reiher, “Stereoscopic Depth Perception From After-Images,” Vision Res. 2, 439 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. N. Ogle, “The Visual Space Sense: Empirical Factors Interacting With Innate Sensory Processes Lead to a Stable Spatial Localization,” Science 135, 763 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. N. Ogle, “Observations on Some Current Problems of Binocular Vision,” read at the Sixth Congress of the International Commission for Optics, Munich, Germany, 19–26 August 1962.
  8. See description in K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1950), p. 89; or in K. N. Ogle, “The Optical Space Sense,” in The Eye: Visual Optics and the Optical Space Sense edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 4, pp. 374–376.
  9. L. Matin, “Binocular Summation at the Absolute Threshold of Peripheral Vision”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1276 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Gast, “Die Untersuchung von stereoskopischen Verlagerungsprozessen unter intermittierenden Bedingungen,” Monatsber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 3(11–12), 622 (1961).
  11. One cannot be sure that these continuing excitations are indeed cortical and not retinal. If retinal, then excitations must be received continuously at the cortical level during the retinal persistence time. However, the fleeting manner in which stereoscopic depth is perceived from afterimages leads one to guess that the excitations dealt with here are probably cortical. If these excitations are indeed “on” and “off” phenomena, then stereoscopic depth can only result from an “on” (or an “off”) effect for both eyes, but not from an “on” response from one eye and an “off” response from the other.
  12. See, for example, the discussion by F. H. Adler, Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application (C. J. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1959), 3rd ed., pp. 641–649.
  13. W. J. Richards, “The Effect of Alternating Views of the Test Object on Vernier and Stereoscopic Acuities,” J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 376 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. A. Iams, R. L. Burtner, and C. H. Chandler, “Stereoscopic Viewing of Cathode-Ray Tube Presentations,” RCA Rev. 9, 149 (1948).
  15. L. H. Beck, “A Theoretical Evaluation of an Experimental Visual Stereo-Enhancer for Aerial Use,” University of Michigan Vision Research Laboratories, R-2144-23 (1955).
  16. E. Cednäs, as reported by L. Rosengren, “Nytt Djup I Gammal Film,” Technikens Värld 10, 20 (1958) [English translation, Office of the Air Attaché, Sweden, Report AF-1180654].
  17. A. Hyman, “Potential Uses of Alternate Binocular Presentation in Studies of Vision and as an Indicator of Physiological Stress,” Wright Air Development Division, Air Research and Development Command, United States Air Force, Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (), Project 7183, Task 71617 (1960).

1962 (3)

K. N. Ogle and Louise Reiher, “Stereoscopic Depth Perception From After-Images,” Vision Res. 2, 439 (1962).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, “The Visual Space Sense: Empirical Factors Interacting With Innate Sensory Processes Lead to a Stable Spatial Localization,” Science 135, 763 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Matin, “Binocular Summation at the Absolute Threshold of Peripheral Vision”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1276 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

H. Gast, “Die Untersuchung von stereoskopischen Verlagerungsprozessen unter intermittierenden Bedingungen,” Monatsber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 3(11–12), 622 (1961).

1958 (1)

E. Cednäs, as reported by L. Rosengren, “Nytt Djup I Gammal Film,” Technikens Värld 10, 20 (1958) [English translation, Office of the Air Attaché, Sweden, Report AF-1180654].

E. Cednäs, as reported by L. Rosengren, “Nytt Djup I Gammal Film,” Technikens Värld 10, 20 (1958) [English translation, Office of the Air Attaché, Sweden, Report AF-1180654].

1954 (2)

K. N. Ogle, “On Stereoscopic Depth Perception,” J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 225 (1954).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, “Basis of Stereoscopic Vision,” A.M.A. Arch. Ophth. 52, 197 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

W. J. Richards, “The Effect of Alternating Views of the Test Object on Vernier and Stereoscopic Acuities,” J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 376 (1951).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

H. A. Iams, R. L. Burtner, and C. H. Chandler, “Stereoscopic Viewing of Cathode-Ray Tube Presentations,” RCA Rev. 9, 149 (1948).

1906 (1)

J. R. Ewald and Oscar Gross, “Über Stereoskopie und Pseudoskopie,” Arch. Ges. Physiol. 115, 514 (1906).
[Crossref]

1904 (1)

Th. Guilloz, “Sur la stéréoscopie obtenue par les visions consécutives d’images monoculaires,” Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 56, 1053 (1904).

Adler, F. H.

See, for example, the discussion by F. H. Adler, Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application (C. J. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1959), 3rd ed., pp. 641–649.

Beck, L. H.

L. H. Beck, “A Theoretical Evaluation of an Experimental Visual Stereo-Enhancer for Aerial Use,” University of Michigan Vision Research Laboratories, R-2144-23 (1955).

Burtner, R. L.

H. A. Iams, R. L. Burtner, and C. H. Chandler, “Stereoscopic Viewing of Cathode-Ray Tube Presentations,” RCA Rev. 9, 149 (1948).

Cednäs, E.

E. Cednäs, as reported by L. Rosengren, “Nytt Djup I Gammal Film,” Technikens Värld 10, 20 (1958) [English translation, Office of the Air Attaché, Sweden, Report AF-1180654].

Chandler, C. H.

H. A. Iams, R. L. Burtner, and C. H. Chandler, “Stereoscopic Viewing of Cathode-Ray Tube Presentations,” RCA Rev. 9, 149 (1948).

Ewald, J. R.

J. R. Ewald and Oscar Gross, “Über Stereoskopie und Pseudoskopie,” Arch. Ges. Physiol. 115, 514 (1906).
[Crossref]

Gast, H.

H. Gast, “Die Untersuchung von stereoskopischen Verlagerungsprozessen unter intermittierenden Bedingungen,” Monatsber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 3(11–12), 622 (1961).

Gross, Oscar

J. R. Ewald and Oscar Gross, “Über Stereoskopie und Pseudoskopie,” Arch. Ges. Physiol. 115, 514 (1906).
[Crossref]

Guilloz, Th.

Th. Guilloz, “Sur la stéréoscopie obtenue par les visions consécutives d’images monoculaires,” Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 56, 1053 (1904).

Hyman, A.

A. Hyman, “Potential Uses of Alternate Binocular Presentation in Studies of Vision and as an Indicator of Physiological Stress,” Wright Air Development Division, Air Research and Development Command, United States Air Force, Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (), Project 7183, Task 71617 (1960).

Iams, H. A.

H. A. Iams, R. L. Burtner, and C. H. Chandler, “Stereoscopic Viewing of Cathode-Ray Tube Presentations,” RCA Rev. 9, 149 (1948).

Matin, L.

Ogle, K. N.

K. N. Ogle and Louise Reiher, “Stereoscopic Depth Perception From After-Images,” Vision Res. 2, 439 (1962).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, “The Visual Space Sense: Empirical Factors Interacting With Innate Sensory Processes Lead to a Stable Spatial Localization,” Science 135, 763 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. N. Ogle, “On Stereoscopic Depth Perception,” J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 225 (1954).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, “Basis of Stereoscopic Vision,” A.M.A. Arch. Ophth. 52, 197 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. N. Ogle, “Observations on Some Current Problems of Binocular Vision,” read at the Sixth Congress of the International Commission for Optics, Munich, Germany, 19–26 August 1962.

See description in K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1950), p. 89; or in K. N. Ogle, “The Optical Space Sense,” in The Eye: Visual Optics and the Optical Space Sense edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 4, pp. 374–376.

Reiher, Louise

K. N. Ogle and Louise Reiher, “Stereoscopic Depth Perception From After-Images,” Vision Res. 2, 439 (1962).
[Crossref]

Richards, W. J.

W. J. Richards, “The Effect of Alternating Views of the Test Object on Vernier and Stereoscopic Acuities,” J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 376 (1951).
[Crossref]

Rosengren, L.

E. Cednäs, as reported by L. Rosengren, “Nytt Djup I Gammal Film,” Technikens Värld 10, 20 (1958) [English translation, Office of the Air Attaché, Sweden, Report AF-1180654].

A.M.A. Arch. Ophth. (1)

K. N. Ogle, “Basis of Stereoscopic Vision,” A.M.A. Arch. Ophth. 52, 197 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Ges. Physiol. (1)

J. R. Ewald and Oscar Gross, “Über Stereoskopie und Pseudoskopie,” Arch. Ges. Physiol. 115, 514 (1906).
[Crossref]

Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. (1)

Th. Guilloz, “Sur la stéréoscopie obtenue par les visions consécutives d’images monoculaires,” Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 56, 1053 (1904).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (2)

W. J. Richards, “The Effect of Alternating Views of the Test Object on Vernier and Stereoscopic Acuities,” J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 376 (1951).
[Crossref]

K. N. Ogle, “On Stereoscopic Depth Perception,” J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 225 (1954).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Monatsber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (1)

H. Gast, “Die Untersuchung von stereoskopischen Verlagerungsprozessen unter intermittierenden Bedingungen,” Monatsber. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 3(11–12), 622 (1961).

RCA Rev. (1)

H. A. Iams, R. L. Burtner, and C. H. Chandler, “Stereoscopic Viewing of Cathode-Ray Tube Presentations,” RCA Rev. 9, 149 (1948).

Science (1)

K. N. Ogle, “The Visual Space Sense: Empirical Factors Interacting With Innate Sensory Processes Lead to a Stable Spatial Localization,” Science 135, 763 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Technikens Värld (1)

E. Cednäs, as reported by L. Rosengren, “Nytt Djup I Gammal Film,” Technikens Värld 10, 20 (1958) [English translation, Office of the Air Attaché, Sweden, Report AF-1180654].

Vision Res. (1)

K. N. Ogle and Louise Reiher, “Stereoscopic Depth Perception From After-Images,” Vision Res. 2, 439 (1962).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

One cannot be sure that these continuing excitations are indeed cortical and not retinal. If retinal, then excitations must be received continuously at the cortical level during the retinal persistence time. However, the fleeting manner in which stereoscopic depth is perceived from afterimages leads one to guess that the excitations dealt with here are probably cortical. If these excitations are indeed “on” and “off” phenomena, then stereoscopic depth can only result from an “on” (or an “off”) effect for both eyes, but not from an “on” response from one eye and an “off” response from the other.

See, for example, the discussion by F. H. Adler, Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application (C. J. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1959), 3rd ed., pp. 641–649.

A. Hyman, “Potential Uses of Alternate Binocular Presentation in Studies of Vision and as an Indicator of Physiological Stress,” Wright Air Development Division, Air Research and Development Command, United States Air Force, Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (), Project 7183, Task 71617 (1960).

K. N. Ogle, “Observations on Some Current Problems of Binocular Vision,” read at the Sixth Congress of the International Commission for Optics, Munich, Germany, 19–26 August 1962.

See description in K. N. Ogle, Researches in Binocular Vision (W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1950), p. 89; or in K. N. Ogle, “The Optical Space Sense,” in The Eye: Visual Optics and the Optical Space Sense edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 4, pp. 374–376.

L. H. Beck, “A Theoretical Evaluation of an Experimental Visual Stereo-Enhancer for Aerial Use,” University of Michigan Vision Research Laboratories, R-2144-23 (1955).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Perspective plan of instrument used to study stereoscopic depth perception with alternate exposures of test target to the two eyes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of modes for exposing images to the two eyes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of type of psychometric data obtained in all experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graphic illustration of a typical set of data, showing loss of stereoscopic depth perception at a critical delay time between exposures to the two eyes; single exposure of 18 msec.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graphic illustration of a typical set of data, showing loss of stereoscopic depth perception at a critical delay time between exposures to the two eyes; single exposure of 10 msec.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Alternate method of plotting a set of data, which illustrates critical delay time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scheme proposed to explain measured decrease in critical delay times with increase in exposure times.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two sets of data for 18- and 100-msec exposures plotted so that beginning of exposures of both coincide. Abscissa is then composed of delay times measured from complete simultaneity of exposures (subject: J.W.).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Two sets of data for 18- and 100-msec exposures plotted so that beginning of exposures of both coincide. Abscissa is then composed of delay times measured from complete simultaneity of exposures (subject: K.N.O.).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Psychophysical data in which independent variable was delay times between successive exposures to the two eyes.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Derived integrative normal function curve corresponding to data illustrated in Fig. 10.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Two sets of data which illustrate decrease in critical delay times when luminance of test lines is increased about 3 log units.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Two sets of data which illustrate increase in critical delay times for repetitive exposures of test lines.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Estimated critical delay times for stereoscopic depth perception for various experiments (milliseconds).

Tables Icon

Table II Limiting delay timesa between exposures of the test images to one eye and then the other for the 50% level of probable stereoscopic depth perception, and the statistic (σ) of the response distribution curves (in milliseconds).