Abstract

A method for calibrating vacuum-ultraviolet monochromators for measurement of absolute radiation intensities is described. It is based on calculating the brightness of an optically thin spectral line in the far ultraviolet from the brightness of a visible line originating from the same upper level. A grazing incidence monochromator and a Seya–Namioka monochromator were calibrated at a number of wavelengths between 1640 and 231 Å, using line pairs of hydrogen and ionized helium. Light sources used to obtain these lines are described. Problems of measurement and sources of error, particularly in the case of hydrogenlike spectra, are discussed.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. W. Hofmann and E. Hinnov, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 150 (1962); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 8, 154 (1963).
  2. W. R. S. Garton (private communication, 1961).
  3. G. Boldt, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases 5th Munich1961, 925.
  4. H. Griem (private communication).
  5. D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, Phys. Rev. 102, 1423 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  6. A description of this method of calibrating ultraviolet monochromators has been published by W. G. Griffin and R. W. P. McWhirter, in the Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1961).
  7. J. van Eck, F. J. Heer, and J. Kistemaker (private communication, 1962).
  8. G. Herzberg, Z. Physik 146, 269 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. L. Roesler, thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1962.
  10. D. R. Bates, A. Fundaminsky, J. W. Leech, and H. S. W. Massey, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 243, 117 (1950).
  11. H. A. Bethe and E. E. Salpeter, Quantum Mechanics of One- and Two-Electron Atoms (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. D. Getty and L. D. Smullin, MIT Res. Lab. Electron. Quart. Progr. Rept.58, 35 (1960).
  13. J. E. Mack, J. R. Stehn, and B. Edlén, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 245 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  14. Po Lee and G. L. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 99, 540 (1955). N. N. Axelrod and M. P. Givens, ibid. 115, 97 (1959).
    [Crossref]

1962 (1)

F. W. Hofmann and E. Hinnov, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 150 (1962); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 8, 154 (1963).

1956 (2)

D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, Phys. Rev. 102, 1423 (1956).
[Crossref]

G. Herzberg, Z. Physik 146, 269 (1956).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

Po Lee and G. L. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 99, 540 (1955). N. N. Axelrod and M. P. Givens, ibid. 115, 97 (1959).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

D. R. Bates, A. Fundaminsky, J. W. Leech, and H. S. W. Massey, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 243, 117 (1950).

1932 (1)

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, A. Fundaminsky, J. W. Leech, and H. S. W. Massey, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 243, 117 (1950).

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe and E. E. Salpeter, Quantum Mechanics of One- and Two-Electron Atoms (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957).
[Crossref]

Boldt, G.

G. Boldt, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases 5th Munich1961, 925.

Edlén, B.

Fundaminsky, A.

D. R. Bates, A. Fundaminsky, J. W. Leech, and H. S. W. Massey, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 243, 117 (1950).

Garton, W. R. S.

W. R. S. Garton (private communication, 1961).

Getty, W. D.

W. D. Getty and L. D. Smullin, MIT Res. Lab. Electron. Quart. Progr. Rept.58, 35 (1960).

Griem, H.

H. Griem (private communication).

Griffin, W. G.

A description of this method of calibrating ultraviolet monochromators has been published by W. G. Griffin and R. W. P. McWhirter, in the Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1961).

Hartman, P. L.

D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, Phys. Rev. 102, 1423 (1956).
[Crossref]

Heer, F. J.

J. van Eck, F. J. Heer, and J. Kistemaker (private communication, 1962).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Z. Physik 146, 269 (1956).
[Crossref]

Hinnov, E.

F. W. Hofmann and E. Hinnov, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 150 (1962); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 8, 154 (1963).

Hofmann, F. W.

F. W. Hofmann and E. Hinnov, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 150 (1962); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 8, 154 (1963).

Kistemaker, J.

J. van Eck, F. J. Heer, and J. Kistemaker (private communication, 1962).

Lee, Po

Po Lee and G. L. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 99, 540 (1955). N. N. Axelrod and M. P. Givens, ibid. 115, 97 (1959).
[Crossref]

Leech, J. W.

D. R. Bates, A. Fundaminsky, J. W. Leech, and H. S. W. Massey, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 243, 117 (1950).

Mack, J. E.

Massey, H. S. W.

D. R. Bates, A. Fundaminsky, J. W. Leech, and H. S. W. Massey, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 243, 117 (1950).

McWhirter, R. W. P.

A description of this method of calibrating ultraviolet monochromators has been published by W. G. Griffin and R. W. P. McWhirter, in the Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1961).

Roesler, F. L.

F. L. Roesler, thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1962.

Salpeter, E. E.

H. A. Bethe and E. E. Salpeter, Quantum Mechanics of One- and Two-Electron Atoms (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957).
[Crossref]

Smullin, L. D.

W. D. Getty and L. D. Smullin, MIT Res. Lab. Electron. Quart. Progr. Rept.58, 35 (1960).

Stehn, J. R.

Tomboulian, D. H.

D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, Phys. Rev. 102, 1423 (1956).
[Crossref]

van Eck, J.

J. van Eck, F. J. Heer, and J. Kistemaker (private communication, 1962).

Weissler, G. L.

Po Lee and G. L. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 99, 540 (1955). N. N. Axelrod and M. P. Givens, ibid. 115, 97 (1959).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

F. W. Hofmann and E. Hinnov, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 150 (1962); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 8, 154 (1963).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

D. R. Bates, A. Fundaminsky, J. W. Leech, and H. S. W. Massey, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 243, 117 (1950).

Phys. Rev. (2)

Po Lee and G. L. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 99, 540 (1955). N. N. Axelrod and M. P. Givens, ibid. 115, 97 (1959).
[Crossref]

D. H. Tomboulian and P. L. Hartman, Phys. Rev. 102, 1423 (1956).
[Crossref]

Z. Physik (1)

G. Herzberg, Z. Physik 146, 269 (1956).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

F. L. Roesler, thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1962.

A description of this method of calibrating ultraviolet monochromators has been published by W. G. Griffin and R. W. P. McWhirter, in the Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instruments and Techniques (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1961).

J. van Eck, F. J. Heer, and J. Kistemaker (private communication, 1962).

W. R. S. Garton (private communication, 1961).

G. Boldt, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases 5th Munich1961, 925.

H. Griem (private communication).

H. A. Bethe and E. E. Salpeter, Quantum Mechanics of One- and Two-Electron Atoms (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957).
[Crossref]

W. D. Getty and L. D. Smullin, MIT Res. Lab. Electron. Quart. Progr. Rept.58, 35 (1960).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the hollow cathode discharge tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microphotometer trace of the higher members of the He ii resonance series.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Errors in branching ratios of hydrogen lines resulting from nonstatistical population of the P states.

Tables Icon

Table II Grazing incidence monochromator sensitivity S(λ) in units of 10−9 A signal per (photons/cm2 sec) and per 10−2 cm limiting slitwidth.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F ( φ ) = φ ( A n S 2 P + 3 A n P 2 S + 5 A n D 2 P ) A n S 2 P + φ 3 A n P 2 S + 5 A n D 2 P .
σ n = f n π e 4 E - 1 ( E x - 1 - E - 1 ) ,
S ( n P n D ) = f n ( 8 π / m k T e ) 1 / 2 e 4 / E x cm 3 / sec .
6 × 10 6 ( k T e ) 1 / 2 / ( n 4 N e ) < τ R ( n P ) ,
R ( λ ) = I ( λ ) S ( λ ) X ,