Abstract

<p>In the study of receptor optics, the current era originates with the discovery of retinal directional sensitivity by Stiles and Crawford in 1933. In recent years the essential complexities of receptor-optical properties have been revealed.</p><p>These properties give rise to directional sensitivity, hue, saturation, and resolution changes. They have been employed to separate photopic from scotopic functions, and to indicate the status of receptor-orientation properties. In some patients exhibiting amblyopia or retinal pathology, characteristic disturbances in receptor directional sensitivity have been noted. It is now possible to induce changes in human receptor orientation.</p><p>Retinal receptors, mitochondria in receptor ellipsoids, and the lamellae and the photosensitive pigment in each lamella of receptor outer segments are orientated. Taper of ellipsoids in retinal cones allows more efficient energy transfer and probably plays an important role in receptor directionality. The configurations, diameters, and indexes of the receptors give rise to the waveguide modal-pattern form of energy transfer. This results in nonuniform distributions of energy in and about receptor outer segments. These distributions and their transmissivity vary within single, and between different retinal receptors as a function of wavelength, and angle of incidence of light. The roles played by these phenomena in vision (particularly the wavelength separation mechanism) require evaluation.</p>

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P. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 780 (1960).

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W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

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A. C. Cruz and J. D. Moreland, Farbe 4, 241 (1955).

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E. J. Denton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B150, 78 (1959).

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K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

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J. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1025 (1960).

J. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 34, 298 (1957).

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 36, 111 (1959).

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 3 II, 262 (1959).

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 8, 329 (1961).

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 315 (1960).

J. M. Enoch, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 548 (1960).

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1122 (1961).

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, and P. Cibis, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 770 (1961).

J. M. Enoch and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 899 (1958).

J. M. Enoch, Science 133, 1353 (1961).

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107 (1961).

Fankhauser, F.

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, and P. Cibis, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 770 (1961).

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 86, 240 (1962). 14a See addendum to reference 14.

Fine, B.

B. Fine, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 66, 847 (1961).

Flamant, F.

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187 (1948).

Forbes, W.

W. Forbes, Am. J. Psychol. 40, 1 (1928).

Francia, G. Toraldo di

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo cimento 5, 589 (1948).

Fry, G. A.

J. M. Enoch and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 899 (1958).

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M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).

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H. Goldmann, Ophthalmologia 103, 225 (1942).

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F. Campbell and A. Gregory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 831 (1960).

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M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).

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G. Hansen, Naturwissenschaften 35-36, 416 (1943).

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E. Snitzer and J. Hicks, J, Opt, r, Am, 49, 1128 (1959).

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H. Ostcrberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49,1128 (1959).

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 36, 413 (1918).

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W. J. White and W. R. Jarve, "The Effects of Gravitational Stress upon Visual Acuity" (WADC Tech. Rept. No. 56-247, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1956).

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J. N. Jean and B. O'Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 1057 (1949).

Jenkins, F.

F. Jenkins and H. White, Fundamentals of Physical Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1937), p. 389

Kapany, N.

N. Kapany, Appendix N in J. Strong's Concepts of Classical Optics (J. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, California, 1958), pp. 553–579.

N. Kapany, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 770, 779 (1959).

Kapany, N. S.

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand, Rev. Opt. 27, 759 (1948).

Leebeek, H.

P. Walraven and H. Leebeek, The chromatic Stiles-Crawford effect of anomalous trichromats, Institute for Perception Report IZF 1962-5, Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1962).

Lipkin, D.

B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949).

Moon, P.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).

Moreland, J. D.

A. C. Cruz and J. D. Moreland, Farbe 4, 241 (1955).

Myers, O.

O. Myers, Nature 193, 449 (1962).

O'Brien, B.

B. O'Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 506 (1946).

B. O'Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 882 (1951).

B. O'Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).

J. N. Jean and B. O'Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 1057 (1949).

Ostcrberg, H.

H. Ostcrberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49,1128 (1959).

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G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6 (1935).

Osterberg, H.

E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 499 (1961).

Plaza, A.

M. Aguilar and A. Plaza, Anales real. soc. Españ. fis. y quim. 50, 119 (1954).

Polanyi, M.

H. Ostcrberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49,1128 (1959).

E. Snitzer and M. Polanyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 476 (1961).

Pugh, M.

M. Pugh, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 449 (1958).

Ronchi, L.

L. Ronchi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Offica 10, 285 (1955).

Rushton, W.

M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).

Rushton, W. A. H.

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

W. A. H. Rushton, Human Cone Pigments, National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8 (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1958).

Schmidt, W. J.

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z. 85, 137 (1938).

Schroeder, A.

A. Schroeder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 945 (1960).

Sidman, R.

R. Sidman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 182 (1958).

R. Sidman, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).

Smelser, G. K.

The Structure of the Eye, G. K. Smelser, edited by (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961).

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer and M. Polanyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 476 (1961).

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1463 (1961).

H. Ostcrberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49,1128 (1959).

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).

E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 499 (1961).

E. Snitzer and J. Hicks, J, Opt, r, Am, 49, 1128 (1959).

Spencer, D. E.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).

Spring, K.

K. Spring and W. S. Stiles, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 340 (1948).

Stenius, S.

S. Stenius, Acta Physiol. Scand. 1, 380, (1941).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Nature 139, 246 (1937).

W. S. Stiles, Ann. Roy. Coll. Surg. Engl. 30, 73 (1962). The author learned of the publication of this review, which covers material similar to that presented in this paper, after submission of this discussion. He recommends it to the reader.

K. Spring and W. S. Stiles, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 340 (1948).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187 (1948).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B123, 90 (1937).

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 8, 329 (1961).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

Tansley, K.

K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).

Toraldo di Francia, G.

G. Toraldo di Francia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 461 (1949).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, Advances in Ophthalmol. 10, 32 (1960).

Walls, G.

G. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye (Cranbrook Press, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 515, 517.

Walraven, P.

P. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 780 (1960).

P. Walraven and H. Leebeek, The chromatic Stiles-Crawford effect of anomalous trichromats, Institute for Perception Report IZF 1962-5, Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1962).

Weale, R.

R. Weale, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 37, 148 (1953).

R. Weale, Vision Research 1, 183 (1961).

White, H.

F. Jenkins and H. White, Fundamentals of Physical Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1937), p. 389

White, W. J.

W. J. White, "Experimental Studies of the Effects of Accelerative Stress on Visual Performance," Dissertation (Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1958).

W. J. White and W. R. Jarve, "The Effects of Gravitational Stress upon Visual Acuity" (WADC Tech. Rept. No. 56-247, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1956).

Zimmerman, L.

L. Zimmerman, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. and Otolaryngol. 62, 697 (1958).

Other

E. Brücke, Arch. Anat. u. Physiol. 11, 444 (1843).

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 36, 413 (1918).

W. Forbes, Am. J. Psychol. 40, 1 (1928).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. (London) 98, 179 (1940).

R. Weale, Vision Research 1, 183 (1961).

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B124, 81 (1937).

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187 (1948).

H. Goldmann, Ophthalmologia 103, 225 (1942).

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

J. N. Jean and B. O'Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 1057 (1949).

J. M. Enoch and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 899 (1958).

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, and P. Cibis, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 770 (1961).

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 86, 240 (1962). 14a See addendum to reference 14.

K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1122 (1961).

K. Spring and W. S. Stiles, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 340 (1948).

M. Alpern and D. Benson, Am. J. Optom. 30, 11, (1953).

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).

N. Kapany, Appendix N in J. Strong's Concepts of Classical Optics (J. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, California, 1958), pp. 553–579.

N. Kapany, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 770, 779 (1959).

E. Snitzer and J. Hicks, J, Opt, r, Am, 49, 1128 (1959).

J. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1025 (1960).

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z. 85, 137 (1938).

E. J. Denton, J. Physiol. 124, 16P–18P (1954).

E. J. Denton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B150, 78 (1959).

B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949).

B. Commoner, Science 110, 31 (1949).

L. Ronchi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Offica 10, 285 (1955).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B123, 90 (1937).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 8, 329 (1961).

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 315 (1960).

B. O'Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 506 (1946).

J. M. Enoch, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 548 (1960).

J. J. Vos, Advances in Ophthalmol. 10, 32 (1960).

M. Aguilar and A. Plaza, Anales real. soc. Españ. fis. y quim. 50, 119 (1954).

J. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 34, 298 (1957).

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 36, 111 (1959).

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 3 II, 262 (1959).

M. Pugh, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 449 (1958).

F. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 144, 25 (1958).

F. Campbell and A. Gregory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 831 (1960).

W. J. White and W. R. Jarve, "The Effects of Gravitational Stress upon Visual Acuity" (WADC Tech. Rept. No. 56-247, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1956).

W. J. White, "Experimental Studies of the Effects of Accelerative Stress on Visual Performance," Dissertation (Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1958).

Y. Le Grand, Rev. Opt. 27, 759 (1948).

B. O'Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 882 (1951).

B. O'Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).

G. Toraldo di Francia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 461 (1949).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo cimento 5, 589 (1948).

R. Sidman, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).

R. Barer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 545 (1957).

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