Abstract

In the study of receptor optics, the current era originates with the discovery of retinal directional sensitivity by Stiles and Crawford in 1933. In recent years the essential complexities of receptor-optical properties have been revealed.

These properties give rise to directional sensitivity, hue, saturation, and resolution changes. They have been employed to separate photopic from scotopic functions, and to indicate the status of receptor-orientation properties. In some patients exhibiting amblyopia or retinal pathology, characteristic disturbances in receptor directional sensitivity have been noted. It is now possible to induce changes in human receptor orientation.

Retinal receptors, mitochondria in receptor ellipsoids, and the lamellae and the photosensitive pigment in each lamella of receptor outer segments are orientated. Taper of ellipsoids in retinal cones allows more efficient energy transfer and probably plays an important role in receptor directionality. The configurations, diameters, and indexes of the receptors give rise to the waveguide modal-pattern form of energy transfer. This results in nonuniform distributions of energy in and about receptor outer segments. These distributions and their transmissivity vary within single, and between different retinal receptors as a function of wavelength, and angle of incidence of light. The roles played by these phenomena in vision (particularly the wavelength separation mechanism) require evaluation.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Brücke, Arch. Anat. u. Physiol. 11, 444 (1843).
  2. H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 36, 413 (1918).
  3. W. Forbes, Am. J. Psychol. 40, 1 (1928).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).
  5. K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. (London) 98, 179 (1940).
  6. R. Weale, Vision Research 1, 183 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B124, 81 (1937).
  8. F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187 (1948).
  9. H. Goldmann, Ophthalmologia 103, 225 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).
  11. J. N. Jean and B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 1057 (1949).
  12. J. M. Enoch and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 899 (1958).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, and P. Cibis, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 770 (1961).
  14. F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 86, 240 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  15. See addendum to reference 14.
    [Crossref]
  16. K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1122 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Spring and W. S. Stiles, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 340 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Alpern and D. Benson, Am. J. Optom. 30, 11, (1953).
  20. G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).
  21. M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).
  22. N. Kapany, Appendix N in J. Strong’s Concepts of Classical Optics (J. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, California, 1958), pp. 553–579.
    [Crossref]
  23. N. Kapany, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 770, 779 (1959).
  24. E. Snitzer and J. Hicks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1025 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z. 85, 137 (1938).
  27. E. J. Denton, J. Physiol. 124, 16P–18P (1954).
  28. E. J. Denton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B150, 78 (1959).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. B. Commoner, Science 110, 31 (1949).
  31. L. Ronchi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Offica 10, 285 (1955).
  32. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B123, 90 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  33. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).
  35. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 8, 329 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 315 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  38. B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 506 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. M. Enoch, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 548 (1960).
  40. J. J. Vos, Advances in Ophthalmol. 10, 32 (1960).
  41. M. Aguilar and A. Plaza, Anales real. soc. Españ. fis. y quim. 50, 119 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  42. J. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 34, 298 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  43. J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 36, 111 (1959).
  44. J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 3 II, 262 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  45. M. Pugh, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 449 (1958).
  46. F. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 144, 25 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  47. F. Campbell and A. Gregory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 831 (1960).
  48. W. J. White and W. R. Jarve, “The Effects of Gravitational Stress upon Visual Acuity” (, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1956).
  49. W. J. White, “Experimental Studies of the Effects of Accelerative Stress on Visual Performance,” Dissertation (Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1958).
  50. Y. Le Grand, Rev. Opt. 27, 759 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  51. B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 882 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  52. B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  53. G. Toraldo di Francia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).
  54. G. Toraldo di Francia, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 461 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  55. G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo cimento 5, 589 (1948).
  56. R. Sidman, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  57. R. Barer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 545 (1957).
  58. The Structure of the Eye, G. K. Smelser, edited by (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961).
    [Crossref]
  59. B. Fine, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 66, 847 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  60. R. Sidman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 182 (1958).
  61. L. Zimmerman, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. and Otolaryngol. 62, 697 (1958).
  62. G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6 (1935).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  63. J. M. Enoch, Science 133, 1353 (1961).
    [PubMed]
  64. J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  65. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Nature 139, 246 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  66. G. Hansen, Naturwissenschaften 35-36, 416 (1943).
  67. G. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 122, 332 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  68. P. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 780 (1960).
  69. P. Walraven and H. Leebeek, The chromatic Stiles–Crawford effect of anomalous trichromats, , Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1962).
    [Crossref]
  70. G. Toraldo di Francia and L. Ronchi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 782 (1952).
  71. H. Osterberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  72. E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  73. E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 499 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  74. N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).
  75. Standards Committee, Proc. IRE 41, 1721 (1953).
  76. E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1463 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  77. A. Schroeder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 945 (1960).
  78. E. Snitzer and M. Polanyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 476 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  79. S. Stenius, Acta Physiol. Scand. 1, 380, (1941).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  80. O. Myers, Nature 193, 449 (1962).
  81. N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).
  82. W. A. H. Rushton, Human Cone Pigments, National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1958).
  83. This author has stressed these two words.
  84. A. C. Cruz and J. D. Moreland, Farbe 4, 241 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  85. R. Weale, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 37, 148 (1953).
  86. G. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye (Cranbrook Press, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 515, 517.
  87. Contrary to the general impression presented in many anatomical textbooks, the limits of the rod-free area are clearly defined.
  88. W. S. Stiles, Ann. Roy. Coll. Surg. Engl. 30, 73 (1962). The author learned of the publication of this review, which covers material similar to that presented in this paper, after submission of this discussion. He recommends it to the reader.
  89. F. Jenkins and H. White, Fundamentals of Physical Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1937), p. 389.

1962 (3)

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 86, 240 (1962).
[Crossref]

O. Myers, Nature 193, 449 (1962).

W. S. Stiles, Ann. Roy. Coll. Surg. Engl. 30, 73 (1962). The author learned of the publication of this review, which covers material similar to that presented in this paper, after submission of this discussion. He recommends it to the reader.

1961 (14)

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1463 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Snitzer and M. Polanyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 476 (1961).
[Crossref]

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1122 (1961).
[Crossref]

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
[Crossref]

E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 499 (1961).
[Crossref]

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).

B. Fine, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 66, 847 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, Science 133, 1353 (1961).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, and P. Cibis, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 770 (1961).

R. Weale, Vision Research 1, 183 (1961).
[Crossref]

M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 8, 329 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1960 (7)

1959 (7)

H. Osterberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref]

E. J. Denton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B150, 78 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Snitzer and J. Hicks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 36, 111 (1959).

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 3 II, 262 (1959).
[Crossref]

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

N. Kapany, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 770, 779 (1959).

1958 (6)

M. Pugh, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 449 (1958).

F. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 144, 25 (1958).
[Crossref]

R. Sidman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 182 (1958).

L. Zimmerman, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. and Otolaryngol. 62, 697 (1958).

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).

J. M. Enoch and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 899 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1957 (3)

R. Sidman, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 34, 298 (1957).
[Crossref]

R. Barer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 545 (1957).

1956 (2)

K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

1955 (2)

L. Ronchi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Offica 10, 285 (1955).

A. C. Cruz and J. D. Moreland, Farbe 4, 241 (1955).
[Crossref]

1954 (2)

M. Aguilar and A. Plaza, Anales real. soc. Españ. fis. y quim. 50, 119 (1954).
[Crossref]

E. J. Denton, J. Physiol. 124, 16P–18P (1954).

1953 (4)

M. Alpern and D. Benson, Am. J. Optom. 30, 11, (1953).

R. Weale, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 37, 148 (1953).

Standards Committee, Proc. IRE 41, 1721 (1953).

G. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 122, 332 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

1951 (1)

1949 (6)

B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).
[Crossref]

G. Toraldo di Francia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 461 (1949).
[Crossref]

J. N. Jean and B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 1057 (1949).

B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Commoner, Science 110, 31 (1949).

1948 (4)

Y. Le Grand, Rev. Opt. 27, 759 (1948).
[Crossref]

K. Spring and W. S. Stiles, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 340 (1948).
[Crossref]

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187 (1948).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo cimento 5, 589 (1948).

1946 (1)

1944 (1)

1943 (1)

G. Hansen, Naturwissenschaften 35-36, 416 (1943).

1942 (1)

H. Goldmann, Ophthalmologia 103, 225 (1942).
[Crossref]

1941 (1)

S. Stenius, Acta Physiol. Scand. 1, 380, (1941).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1940 (1)

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. (London) 98, 179 (1940).

1939 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z. 85, 137 (1938).

1937 (3)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B123, 90 (1937).
[Crossref]

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B124, 81 (1937).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Nature 139, 246 (1937).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6 (1935).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

1928 (1)

W. Forbes, Am. J. Psychol. 40, 1 (1928).
[Crossref]

1918 (1)

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 36, 413 (1918).

1843 (1)

E. Brücke, Arch. Anat. u. Physiol. 11, 444 (1843).

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar and A. Plaza, Anales real. soc. Españ. fis. y quim. 50, 119 (1954).
[Crossref]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern and D. Benson, Am. J. Optom. 30, 11, (1953).

Barer, R.

Benson, D.

M. Alpern and D. Benson, Am. J. Optom. 30, 11, (1953).

Bouman, M. A.

Brindley, G.

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

G. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 122, 332 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brücke, E.

E. Brücke, Arch. Anat. u. Physiol. 11, 444 (1843).

Burke, J. J.

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).

Campbell, F.

F. Campbell and A. Gregory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 831 (1960).

F. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 144, 25 (1958).
[Crossref]

Cibis, P.

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, and P. Cibis, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 770 (1961).

Commoner, B.

B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Commoner, Science 110, 31 (1949).

Craik, K. J. W.

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. (London) 98, 179 (1940).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B124, 81 (1937).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Nature 139, 246 (1937).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Cruz, A. C.

A. C. Cruz and J. D. Moreland, Farbe 4, 241 (1955).
[Crossref]

Denton, E. J.

E. J. Denton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B150, 78 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Denton, J. Physiol. 124, 16P–18P (1954).

Donner, K. O.

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

Enoch, J.

Enoch, J. M.

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 86, 240 (1962).
[Crossref]

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, and P. Cibis, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 770 (1961).

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 8, 329 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, Science 133, 1353 (1961).
[PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1122 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 315 (1960).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 548 (1960).

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 36, 111 (1959).

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 3 II, 262 (1959).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).

J. M. Enoch and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 899 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fankhauser, F.

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 86, 240 (1962).
[Crossref]

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, and P. Cibis, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 770 (1961).

Fine, B.

B. Fine, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 66, 847 (1961).
[Crossref]

Flamant, F.

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187 (1948).

Forbes, W.

W. Forbes, Am. J. Psychol. 40, 1 (1928).
[Crossref]

Fry, G. A.

Fuortes, M.

M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).

Goldmann, H.

H. Goldmann, Ophthalmologia 103, 225 (1942).
[Crossref]

Gregory, A.

Gunkel, R.

M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).

Hansen, G.

G. Hansen, Naturwissenschaften 35-36, 416 (1943).

Hicks, J.

E. Snitzer and J. Hicks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hilberg, R.

H. Osterberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref]

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 36, 413 (1918).

Jarve, W. R.

W. J. White and W. R. Jarve, “The Effects of Gravitational Stress upon Visual Acuity” (, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1956).

Jean, J. N.

J. N. Jean and B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 1057 (1949).

Jenkins, F.

F. Jenkins and H. White, Fundamentals of Physical Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1937), p. 389.

Kapany, N.

N. Kapany, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 770, 779 (1959).

N. Kapany, Appendix N in J. Strong’s Concepts of Classical Optics (J. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, California, 1958), pp. 553–579.
[Crossref]

Kapany, N. S.

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand, Rev. Opt. 27, 759 (1948).
[Crossref]

Leebeek, H.

P. Walraven and H. Leebeek, The chromatic Stiles–Crawford effect of anomalous trichromats, , Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1962).
[Crossref]

Lipkin, D.

B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, P.

Moreland, J. D.

A. C. Cruz and J. D. Moreland, Farbe 4, 241 (1955).
[Crossref]

Myers, O.

O. Myers, Nature 193, 449 (1962).

O’Brien, B.

Osterberg, G.

G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6 (1935).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osterberg, H.

E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 499 (1961).
[Crossref]

H. Osterberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref]

Plaza, A.

M. Aguilar and A. Plaza, Anales real. soc. Españ. fis. y quim. 50, 119 (1954).
[Crossref]

Polanyi, M.

E. Snitzer and M. Polanyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 476 (1961).
[Crossref]

H. Osterberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref]

Pugh, M.

M. Pugh, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 449 (1958).

Ronchi, L.

L. Ronchi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Offica 10, 285 (1955).

G. Toraldo di Francia and L. Ronchi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 782 (1952).

Rushton, W.

M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).

Rushton, W. A. H.

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

W. A. H. Rushton, Human Cone Pigments, National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1958).

Schmidt, W. J.

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z. 85, 137 (1938).

Schroeder, A.

Sidman, R.

R. Sidman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 182 (1958).

R. Sidman, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1463 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Snitzer and M. Polanyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 476 (1961).
[Crossref]

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
[Crossref]

E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 499 (1961).
[Crossref]

H. Osterberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref]

E. Snitzer and J. Hicks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spencer, D. E.

Spring, K.

K. Spring and W. S. Stiles, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 340 (1948).
[Crossref]

Stenius, S.

S. Stenius, Acta Physiol. Scand. 1, 380, (1941).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Ann. Roy. Coll. Surg. Engl. 30, 73 (1962). The author learned of the publication of this review, which covers material similar to that presented in this paper, after submission of this discussion. He recommends it to the reader.

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 8, 329 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Spring and W. S. Stiles, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 340 (1948).
[Crossref]

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187 (1948).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Nature 139, 246 (1937).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B123, 90 (1937).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Strong, J.

N. Kapany, Appendix N in J. Strong’s Concepts of Classical Optics (J. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, California, 1958), pp. 553–579.
[Crossref]

Tansley, K.

K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toraldo di Francia, G.

G. Toraldo di Francia and L. Ronchi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 782 (1952).

G. Toraldo di Francia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 461 (1949).
[Crossref]

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo cimento 5, 589 (1948).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, Advances in Ophthalmol. 10, 32 (1960).

Walls, G.

G. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye (Cranbrook Press, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 515, 517.

Walraven, P.

P. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 780 (1960).

P. Walraven and H. Leebeek, The chromatic Stiles–Crawford effect of anomalous trichromats, , Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1962).
[Crossref]

Weale, R.

R. Weale, Vision Research 1, 183 (1961).
[Crossref]

R. Weale, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 37, 148 (1953).

White, H.

F. Jenkins and H. White, Fundamentals of Physical Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1937), p. 389.

White, W. J.

W. J. White, “Experimental Studies of the Effects of Accelerative Stress on Visual Performance,” Dissertation (Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1958).

W. J. White and W. R. Jarve, “The Effects of Gravitational Stress upon Visual Acuity” (, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1956).

Zimmerman, L.

L. Zimmerman, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. and Otolaryngol. 62, 697 (1958).

A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. Fankhauser and J. M. Enoch, A. M. A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 86, 240 (1962).
[Crossref]

A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. M. Enoch, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 63, 548 (1960).

B. Fine, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 66, 847 (1961).
[Crossref]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 13, Suppl. 6 (1935).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Physiol. Scand. (1)

S. Stenius, Acta Physiol. Scand. 1, 380, (1941).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Advances in Ophthalmol. (1)

J. J. Vos, Advances in Ophthalmol. 10, 32 (1960).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 48, 3 II, 262 (1959).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 1107 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. Fankhauser, J. M. Enoch, and P. Cibis, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 770 (1961).

Am. J. Optom. (3)

M. Alpern and D. Benson, Am. J. Optom. 30, 11, (1953).

J. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 34, 298 (1957).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, Am. J. Optom. 36, 111 (1959).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

W. Forbes, Am. J. Psychol. 40, 1 (1928).
[Crossref]

Anales real. soc. Españ. fis. y quim. (1)

M. Aguilar and A. Plaza, Anales real. soc. Españ. fis. y quim. 50, 119 (1954).
[Crossref]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

R. Sidman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 182 (1958).

Ann. Roy. Coll. Surg. Engl. (1)

W. S. Stiles, Ann. Roy. Coll. Surg. Engl. 30, 73 (1962). The author learned of the publication of this review, which covers material similar to that presented in this paper, after submission of this discussion. He recommends it to the reader.

Arch. Anat. u. Physiol. (1)

E. Brücke, Arch. Anat. u. Physiol. 11, 444 (1843).

Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Offica (1)

L. Ronchi, Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi Contrib. Ist. Naz. Offica 10, 285 (1955).

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

K. Spring and W. S. Stiles, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 32, 340 (1948).
[Crossref]

M. Pugh, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 449 (1958).

R. Weale, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 37, 148 (1953).

Farbe (1)

A. C. Cruz and J. D. Moreland, Farbe 4, 241 (1955).
[Crossref]

J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. (1)

R. Sidman, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3, 15 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (25)

R. Barer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 545 (1957).

G. Toraldo di Francia and L. Ronchi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 782 (1952).

H. Osterberg, E. Snitzer, M. Polanyi, and R. Hilberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref]

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
[Crossref]

E. Snitzer and H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 499 (1961).
[Crossref]

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1067 (1961).

F. Campbell and A. Gregory, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 831 (1960).

B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 882 (1951).
[Crossref]

B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).
[Crossref]

G. Toraldo di Francia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 324 (1949).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319 (1944).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 315 (1960).
[Crossref]

B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 506 (1946).
[Crossref]

J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1122 (1961).
[Crossref]

N. Kapany, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 770, 779 (1959).

E. Snitzer and J. Hicks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1128 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1025 (1960).
[Crossref]

J. N. Jean and B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 1057 (1949).

J. M. Enoch and G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 899 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).

P. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 780 (1960).

E. Snitzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1463 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schroeder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 945 (1960).

E. Snitzer and M. Polanyi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 476 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. Physiol. (1)

E. J. Denton, J. Physiol. 124, 16P–18P (1954).

J. Physiol. (London) (7)

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

M. Fuortes, R. Gunkel, and W. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 156, 179 (1961).

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

K. J. W. Craik, J. Physiol. (London) 98, 179 (1940).

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. (London) 107, 187 (1948).

F. Campbell, J. Physiol. (London) 144, 25 (1958).
[Crossref]

G. Brindley, J. Physiol. (London) 122, 332 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolloid-Z. (1)

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid-Z. 85, 137 (1938).

Nature (3)

K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Nature 139, 246 (1937).
[Crossref]

O. Myers, Nature 193, 449 (1962).

Naturwissenschaften (1)

G. Hansen, Naturwissenschaften 35-36, 416 (1943).

Nuovo cimento (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo cimento 5, 589 (1948).

Ophthalmologia (1)

H. Goldmann, Ophthalmologia 103, 225 (1942).
[Crossref]

Optica Acta (Paris) (1)

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta (Paris) 8, 329 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phil. Mag. (1)

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 36, 413 (1918).

Proc. IRE (1)

Standards Committee, Proc. IRE 41, 1721 (1953).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B62, 461 (1949).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (5)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B124, 81 (1937).

E. J. Denton, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B150, 78 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B123, 90 (1937).
[Crossref]

Rev. Opt. (1)

Y. Le Grand, Rev. Opt. 27, 759 (1948).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

J. M. Enoch, Science 133, 1353 (1961).
[PubMed]

B. Commoner and D. Lipkin, Science 110, 41 (1949).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Commoner, Science 110, 31 (1949).

Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. and Otolaryngol. (1)

L. Zimmerman, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. and Otolaryngol. 62, 697 (1958).

Vision Research (1)

R. Weale, Vision Research 1, 183 (1961).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

See addendum to reference 14.
[Crossref]

N. Kapany, Appendix N in J. Strong’s Concepts of Classical Optics (J. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, California, 1958), pp. 553–579.
[Crossref]

The Structure of the Eye, G. K. Smelser, edited by (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961).
[Crossref]

W. J. White and W. R. Jarve, “The Effects of Gravitational Stress upon Visual Acuity” (, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1956).

W. J. White, “Experimental Studies of the Effects of Accelerative Stress on Visual Performance,” Dissertation (Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1958).

W. A. H. Rushton, Human Cone Pigments, National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1958).

This author has stressed these two words.

P. Walraven and H. Leebeek, The chromatic Stiles–Crawford effect of anomalous trichromats, , Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1962).
[Crossref]

G. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye (Cranbrook Press, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942), pp. 515, 517.

Contrary to the general impression presented in many anatomical textbooks, the limits of the rod-free area are clearly defined.

F. Jenkins and H. White, Fundamentals of Physical Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1937), p. 389.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

This simplified schematic diagram demonstrates how angle of incidence may be varied in studies of directional sensitivity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Foveal directional sensitivity of Dr. Stiles’ eye. Each point represents the mean of determinations taken at several different wavelengths. An empirical function is fitted to these data. The effect of varying the value p in this function is demonstrated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

These are the same type data as shown in Fig. 2 except that they are expressed in terms of directional (j. n. d.) threshold rather than directional sensitivity. They represent data taken in two pupillary meridians before (A,B) and after (C,D) light coagulation of this observer’s peripheral retina. The retinal test area was the central fovea.13 This clear evidence of a shift in orientation has important theoretical implications.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

This illustration (A) is taken from O’Brien.50 The tapered cone ellipsoid acts as a funnel, but leaks if the angle of incidence θ at the mouth of the receptor is large. Light enters the inner segment, and passes through to the photosensitive-pigment-bearing outer segment. Consider the possibility of a sudden transition from the larger diameter inner segment to the smaller diameter outer segment B. Back reflections would occur, energy would be refracted out, and far less energy would be directed into the outer segment. The taper acts to make the transfer of energy more efficient. This is, in part, what Toraldo means when he speaks of the ellipsoid as an impedance-matching device.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

These curves are fitted by eye to measurements of individual receptors in the central fovea of a squirrel monkey. These data exhibit some variability but do not depart in a significant manner from the above curves. Data are omitted to avoid confusion. The log scale is employed in order to allow all factors to be fitted on one graph. The ordinal values for the dashed curve are to the right.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

These are examples of modal patterns photographed at, or near, the terminations of retinal receptors of the species cited in the text. Idealized versions accompany each photograph.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Modal patterns (negative form) which have been observed at, or near the terminations of the retinal receptors of the species cited in the text.63 Cutoff values are given. The forms at the bottom of this chart are less frequently observed than those at the top and the middle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

This is a schematic diagram of the apparatus employed. The specimen, viewed with the microscope, may be illuminated with white or monochromatic light. Both the angle of incidence θ, and the cone angle ϕ may be varied. The beam of light may be polarized (P). Energy from the source S, an Osram XBO-1001 xenon arc, is focused upon the retina after passing through a water filter W which absorbs much of the infrared portion of the spectrum.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

This is a photograph of part of the rod-free central area of a squirrel monkey. It demonstrates an apparent organization of the transmissive properties of the retinal receptors in monochromatic (λ=620 mμ) light.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

A schematic diagram of a model retinal-rod receptor. The vertical line represents the external-limiting membrane.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Derived functions showing the relative amount of energy reflected at point G in Fig. 10 as a function of θ (Fig. 10).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = η max 10 t ,
t = - p ( d - d max ) 2 .
Cutoff = ( 2 π r / λ ) ( n 2 2 - n 4 2 ) 1 2 ,
n 1 sin θ = ( n 2 2 - n 4 2 ) 1 2 .
R s F s = [ - sin ( γ - γ ) sin ( γ + γ ) ] 2 R p F p = [ tan ( γ - γ ) tan ( γ + γ ) ] 2 .