Abstract

At photopic levels, the amplitude-frequency response curve of the retina assumes a wide variety of shapes when the color of the flickering component of the stimulus is not the same as that of the steady component. Apparently, the photoreaction rates and neural time constants of the various color subchannels differ in the same order as their spectral sensitivities, so that low-frequency sensitivity is enhanced when the adapting wavelength is longer than the flickering wavelength, and high-frequency sensitivity is enhanced when the adapting wavelength is shorter than the flickering wavelength. Chromatically adapted responses to white flicker show that the low-frequency band (4–7 cps) is controlled by the blue-sensitive channel; the middle-frequency band (10–15 cps), by the green-sensitive channel; and the high-frequency band (20–30 cps), by the red-sensitive channel. The results also depend on the spatial pattern of the stimulus; a sharp-edged field obscures the “red” peak and enhances the “blue” peak, even in the absence of blue light. These phenomena cannot be detected with traditional flicker-fusion stimuli, since they do not occur at the CFF.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 422 (1961).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 747 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 89 (1962).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. H. Kelly, Rev. Sci. Instr. 32, 50 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. DeLange Dzn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958). See Fig. 8.
    [CrossRef]
  6. See reference 4, Fig. 6.
  7. It will be recalled from Part I that at low frequencies, the absolute amplitude sensitivity of a given channel is controlled by its adaptation level. When two white-light response curves are measured at different luminances, the adaptation levels of all three subchannels are altered proportionally. But if different sub channels have different spectral sensitivities, this will no longer be true when two monochromatic response curves are measured at different wavelengths.
  8. Calculation of the actual luminance or radiance ratios would simply translate each curve up or down by a small constant amount on the log scales used in Figs. 3–8, leaving the curve shapes unaffected.
  9. The reader may be reminded here of the “two-color threshold” technique used extensively by Stiles and later by Boynton et al. See, e.g., W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 45, 100 (1959); R. M. Boynton and M. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 429 (1961); W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1047 (1955). A meaningful comparison of these transient color responses with the corresponding steady-state conditions would be of considerable interest, but is not possible within the scope of the present paper. (However, see the discussion of white-light transients in reference 2.)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. See reference 1, Fig. 5.
  11. A. Fiorentini, “Dynamic Characteristics of Visual Processes,” Chap. VII in E. Wolf, Editor, Progress in Optics, Vol. I (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Bryngdahl, Optica Acta 8, 1 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 730 (1959).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. W. Ditchburn, “Eye-movements in Relation to Perception of Color,” in Visual Problems of Color, Vol. II Symposium No. 8, National Physical Laboratory, Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London, 1958.

1962 (1)

1961 (4)

1959 (2)

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 730 (1959).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The reader may be reminded here of the “two-color threshold” technique used extensively by Stiles and later by Boynton et al. See, e.g., W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 45, 100 (1959); R. M. Boynton and M. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 429 (1961); W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1047 (1955). A meaningful comparison of these transient color responses with the corresponding steady-state conditions would be of considerable interest, but is not possible within the scope of the present paper. (However, see the discussion of white-light transients in reference 2.)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, Optica Acta 8, 1 (1961).
[CrossRef]

DeLange Dzn, H.

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, “Eye-movements in Relation to Perception of Color,” in Visual Problems of Color, Vol. II Symposium No. 8, National Physical Laboratory, Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London, 1958.

Fiorentini, A.

A. Fiorentini, “Dynamic Characteristics of Visual Processes,” Chap. VII in E. Wolf, Editor, Progress in Optics, Vol. I (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, D. H.

Stiles, W. S.

The reader may be reminded here of the “two-color threshold” technique used extensively by Stiles and later by Boynton et al. See, e.g., W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 45, 100 (1959); R. M. Boynton and M. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 429 (1961); W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1047 (1955). A meaningful comparison of these transient color responses with the corresponding steady-state conditions would be of considerable interest, but is not possible within the scope of the present paper. (However, see the discussion of white-light transients in reference 2.)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Optica Acta (1)

O. Bryngdahl, Optica Acta 8, 1 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

The reader may be reminded here of the “two-color threshold” technique used extensively by Stiles and later by Boynton et al. See, e.g., W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 45, 100 (1959); R. M. Boynton and M. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 429 (1961); W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1047 (1955). A meaningful comparison of these transient color responses with the corresponding steady-state conditions would be of considerable interest, but is not possible within the scope of the present paper. (However, see the discussion of white-light transients in reference 2.)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

D. H. Kelly, Rev. Sci. Instr. 32, 50 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

See reference 4, Fig. 6.

It will be recalled from Part I that at low frequencies, the absolute amplitude sensitivity of a given channel is controlled by its adaptation level. When two white-light response curves are measured at different luminances, the adaptation levels of all three subchannels are altered proportionally. But if different sub channels have different spectral sensitivities, this will no longer be true when two monochromatic response curves are measured at different wavelengths.

Calculation of the actual luminance or radiance ratios would simply translate each curve up or down by a small constant amount on the log scales used in Figs. 3–8, leaving the curve shapes unaffected.

See reference 1, Fig. 5.

A. Fiorentini, “Dynamic Characteristics of Visual Processes,” Chap. VII in E. Wolf, Editor, Progress in Optics, Vol. I (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Ditchburn, “Eye-movements in Relation to Perception of Color,” in Visual Problems of Color, Vol. II Symposium No. 8, National Physical Laboratory, Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London, 1958.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dynamic spectral sensitivities of four color-normal observers at fixed frequencies of 5, 12, and 25 cps, plotted from data of Table II. Adaptation beam: white light (850 trolands); flicker beam: monochromatic filters listed in Table I.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Inter-observer average spectral sensitivity curves corresponding to Fig. 1. Since the monochromatic stimuli depart somewhat from an equal-energy series (in the direction of equal luminance), the radiance amplitude scale for stimulus R is given on the right; equivalent scales for the other stimuli are shown by the broken lines at the top and bottom of the graph. The slightly curved coordinate system (which also applies to Fig. 1) has no effect on the relations among the three curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

White-light amplitude sensitivity vs frequency, observer JHK. Adaptation beam: stimulus B (453 m/t); nicker beam: white light (77 trolands). The dotted curve shows the 77-troland, white-adapted response of the same observer; note the relative suppression of the 7-cps peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3, but with adaptation stimulus G (538 mμ). Here the 12-cps peak is suppressed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Figs. 3 and 4, but with adaptation stimulus R (620 mμ). Here the 24-cps peak is suppressed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Blue-light amplitude sensitivity vs frequency, observer JHK adapted to yellow light. Adaptation beam: stimulus Y; flicker beam: stimulus B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Red-light amplitude sensitivity vs frequency, observer JHK adapted to green light. Adaptation beam: stimulus G; flicker beam: stimulus R (solid curve), 0.1 stimulus R (dotted curve). Note that the nominal values of m are about 10 times greater in the latter case, so that the radiance amplitude sensitivity and the shape of the curve remain relatively unchanged.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as upper curve of Fig. 7, but with 4° sharp-edged field (dark surround). Note prominent 7-cps peak and suppression of 24-cps peak.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Six narrow-band filter combinations used in the flicker beam (or in the adaptation beam) of the stimulus generator.

Tables Icon

Table II Spectral sensitivities of four observers at three fixed frequencies.