Abstract

The frequency ratio of the fundamental 6940-Å radiation from a pulsed ruby optical maser and the second harmonic generated in piezoelectric crystals has been investigated by comparing the wavelengths of the first and second harmonics with known thorium spectral lines on photographs taken with a 15 000 lines-per-inch grating spectrometer. Two piezoelectric crystals, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and quartz, and one ferroelectric crystal, triglycine sulfate, were used to generate the second harmonic. In each case the generated second harmonic is twice the frequency of the primary radiation to within the limits imposed by the linewidth of the primary radiation and the resolution of the instrument. These restrictions limit the accuracy of the experiment to ±3 parts per million (ppm) for KDP, ±6 ppm for quartz, and ±4 ppm for TGS. Some spectral characteristics of high-energy pulses from the ruby optical maser as they might affect this experiment are given.

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  1. P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 118 (1961); P. A. Franken (private communication).
  2. Trion Instruments Inc., Model T-3000. Energy output quoted was given by manufacturer.
  3. I. D. Abella and H. Z. Cummins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1177 (1961).
  4. W. F. Meggers and R. W. Stanley, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 61, 95 (1958).
  5. B. Edlén, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 339 (1953); C. D. Coleman, W. R. Bozman, and W. F. Meggers, Natl. Bur. Standards Monograph 3 (1960).
  6. J. A. Giordmaine, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 19 (1962).
  7. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 21 (1962).
  8. I. D. Abella and C. H. Townes, Nature 192, 957 (1961).
  9. M. Bass, P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 18 (1962).

Abella, I. D.

I. D. Abella and C. H. Townes, Nature 192, 957 (1961).

I. D. Abella and H. Z. Cummins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1177 (1961).

Bass, M.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 18 (1962).

Cummins, H. Z.

I. D. Abella and H. Z. Cummins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1177 (1961).

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 339 (1953); C. D. Coleman, W. R. Bozman, and W. F. Meggers, Natl. Bur. Standards Monograph 3 (1960).

Franken, P. A.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 118 (1961); P. A. Franken (private communication).

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 18 (1962).

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 19 (1962).

Hill, A. E.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 18 (1962).

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 118 (1961); P. A. Franken (private communication).

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 21 (1962).

Meggers, W. F.

W. F. Meggers and R. W. Stanley, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 61, 95 (1958).

Nisenoff, M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 21 (1962).

Peters, C. W.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 118 (1961); P. A. Franken (private communication).

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 18 (1962).

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 21 (1962).

Stanley, R. W.

W. F. Meggers and R. W. Stanley, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 61, 95 (1958).

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 21 (1962).

Townes, C. H.

I. D. Abella and C. H. Townes, Nature 192, 957 (1961).

Weinreich, G.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 18 (1962).

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 118 (1961); P. A. Franken (private communication).

Other (9)

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 118 (1961); P. A. Franken (private communication).

Trion Instruments Inc., Model T-3000. Energy output quoted was given by manufacturer.

I. D. Abella and H. Z. Cummins, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1177 (1961).

W. F. Meggers and R. W. Stanley, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 61, 95 (1958).

B. Edlén, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 339 (1953); C. D. Coleman, W. R. Bozman, and W. F. Meggers, Natl. Bur. Standards Monograph 3 (1960).

J. A. Giordmaine, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 19 (1962).

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 21 (1962).

I. D. Abella and C. H. Townes, Nature 192, 957 (1961).

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 18 (1962).

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