Abstract

This paper consists of a theoretical discussion of maser action at optical frequencies with emphasis on the differences between stimulated emission and absorption in coherent and incoherent fields. Use is made of a geometrical representation of the equations of motion of the density matrix to illustrate the conditions for continuous-wave operation, amplification, production of large pulses, and for the appearance of relaxation oscillations.

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  1. W. E. Lamb, "Quantum Mechanical Amplifiers," lecture presented at the Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Colorado, Summer, 1959 (with extensive bibliography).
  2. A. A. Vuylsteke, Elements of Maser Theory, (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1961), references given in bibliography.
  3. Y. H. Pao and M. Resnikoff, "The Resonant Mode Structure of Solid-State Fabry-Perot Cavities" (to be published).
  4. T. H. Maiman, Phys. Rev. 123, 1145 (1961).
  5. R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 9 (1961).
  6. J. R. Singer and S. Wang, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 351 (1961).
  7. I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 111, 3 (1958).
  8. I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 115, 227 (1959).
  9. I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 119, 1807 (1960).
  10. I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 123, 1525 (1961).
  11. The relaxation times T1 and T2 are inserted to represent the various effects of interaction with lattice, spontaneous emission, and exchange between maser molecules. These are discussed further in Secs. 3 and 5.
  12. R. P. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49 (1957).
  13. R when not a vector and also when used without subscripts represents optical pumping.
  14. This point needs to be investigated further. This is not to say that R2 is actually of a sinusoidal spatial nature but what is meant is that the effective R2 is of this nature and departures of R2 from this dependence do not lead to emission which contributes to the excitation of this particular cavity mode.
  15. T1 represents te relaxation due to interaction with lattice as well as the action of spontaneous emission. In addition to these two relaxational mechanisms, T2 represents also the interaction between maser molecules, i.e., an exchange effect which is, however, negligible for low concentrations of these molecules.

Feynman, R. P.

R. P. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49 (1957).

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. P. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49 (1957).

R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 9 (1961).

Lamb, W. E.

W. E. Lamb, "Quantum Mechanical Amplifiers," lecture presented at the Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Colorado, Summer, 1959 (with extensive bibliography).

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, Phys. Rev. 123, 1145 (1961).

Pao, Y. H.

Y. H. Pao and M. Resnikoff, "The Resonant Mode Structure of Solid-State Fabry-Perot Cavities" (to be published).

Resnikoff, M.

Y. H. Pao and M. Resnikoff, "The Resonant Mode Structure of Solid-State Fabry-Perot Cavities" (to be published).

Senitsky, I. R.

I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 123, 1525 (1961).

I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 111, 3 (1958).

I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 119, 1807 (1960).

I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 115, 227 (1959).

Singer, J. R.

J. R. Singer and S. Wang, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 351 (1961).

Vernon, F. L.

R. P. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49 (1957).

Vuylsteke, A. A.

A. A. Vuylsteke, Elements of Maser Theory, (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1961), references given in bibliography.

Wang, S.

J. R. Singer and S. Wang, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 351 (1961).

Other (15)

W. E. Lamb, "Quantum Mechanical Amplifiers," lecture presented at the Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Colorado, Summer, 1959 (with extensive bibliography).

A. A. Vuylsteke, Elements of Maser Theory, (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1961), references given in bibliography.

Y. H. Pao and M. Resnikoff, "The Resonant Mode Structure of Solid-State Fabry-Perot Cavities" (to be published).

T. H. Maiman, Phys. Rev. 123, 1145 (1961).

R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 9 (1961).

J. R. Singer and S. Wang, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 351 (1961).

I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 111, 3 (1958).

I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 115, 227 (1959).

I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 119, 1807 (1960).

I. R. Senitsky, Phys. Rev. 123, 1525 (1961).

The relaxation times T1 and T2 are inserted to represent the various effects of interaction with lattice, spontaneous emission, and exchange between maser molecules. These are discussed further in Secs. 3 and 5.

R. P. Feynman, F. L. Vernon, and R. W. Hellwarth, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49 (1957).

R when not a vector and also when used without subscripts represents optical pumping.

This point needs to be investigated further. This is not to say that R2 is actually of a sinusoidal spatial nature but what is meant is that the effective R2 is of this nature and departures of R2 from this dependence do not lead to emission which contributes to the excitation of this particular cavity mode.

T1 represents te relaxation due to interaction with lattice as well as the action of spontaneous emission. In addition to these two relaxational mechanisms, T2 represents also the interaction between maser molecules, i.e., an exchange effect which is, however, negligible for low concentrations of these molecules.

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