Abstract

Threshold sensitivity was studied in two observers along lines running vertically and horizontally through the region of the optic disk. When the test field fell entirely on the disk the luminance of test flashes of 0.04-sec duration could be raised to a level high enough to cause an excitation. Under these conditions the luminance may be 1 to 2 log units higher than that required for excitation of retinal regions adjacent to the disk. It is assumed that the excitation was brought about by scatter of light in the ocular media. This assumption was supported by the fact that (1) differences in sensitivity were found between the two observers due to changes in transmittance of the dioptric media with age, and (2) that when test fields of various sizes (1°, 2°, 5°, and 10°) were projected into the disk area and dark adaptation was studied, bipartite dark-adaptation curves were obtained which indicated the participation of rods and cones. The size of the disk area as determined by excitability measurements corresponds to that found in tangent screen tests. The nasal edge of the disk is more precisely defined than the temporal edge, a fact which is accounted for by the relatively greater sensitivity of the retinal elements in the nasal area.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. V. Raman, Phil. Mag. 38, 568 (1919).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. A. Michelson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 197 (1924).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Vogt, Lehrbuch and Atlas der Spaltlampenmikroskoie des Lebenden Auges (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, 1931).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Feinberg, Psychol. Forsch. 7, 16 (1926).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. F. Scofield, Am. J. Psychol. 42, 213 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. DeSilva and A. Weber, J. Exptl. Psychol. 15, 399 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. R. Garvey, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 83 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Helson, Am. J. Psychol. 41, 345 (1930). J. Exptl. Psychol. 17, 763 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Zigler and E. Wolf, Am. J. Psychol. 71, 186 (1958).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Wolf and M. J. Zigler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 394 (1959).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and M. M. Monroe, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 9, 95 (1926); Am. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 159 (1930).
  13. W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Measurements of blind spot size on large numbers of individuals between 5 and 92 years show an increase of horizontal and vertical diameter with age. Data to be published. Personal communication by J. Fodor, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. BrønsActa Ophthalmol, Suppl. 17, (1939); S. H. Bartley, Vision, A Study of its Basis (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1941).
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  19. L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).
    [PubMed]
  20. F. L. Dimmick and J. A. Smith, “The parameters of scotopic sensitivity (1) The effect of size.” Med. Research Lab. Rept. 10, No. 174 (1951).
  21. S. G. DeGroot, J. M. Dodge, and J. A. Smith, “Factors in night vision sensitivity. The effect of brightness.” Bureau Med. Surg. Rept 11, No. 194 (1953).
  22. G. A. Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).
  23. M. Schultze, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 2, 175 (1866).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Schwalbe, Gaefe–Saemisch Handbuch der ges. Augenheilk.  1, (1874).

1960 (1)

1959 (1)

1958 (1)

M. J. Zigler and E. Wolf, Am. J. Psychol. 71, 186 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955 (1)

R. A. McFarland and M. B. Fisher, J. Gerontol. 10, 424 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1947 (1)

L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).
[PubMed]

1939 (2)

J. BrønsActa Ophthalmol, Suppl. 17, (1939); S. H. Bartley, Vision, A Study of its Basis (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1941).

W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).

1935 (1)

G. A. Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).

1933 (2)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Am. J. Physiol. 16, 83 (1933).

C. R. Garvey, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 83 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1932 (1)

R. H. DeSilva and A. Weber, J. Exptl. Psychol. 15, 399 (1932).
[CrossRef]

1930 (2)

C. F. Scofield, Am. J. Psychol. 42, 213 (1930).
[CrossRef]

H. Helson, Am. J. Psychol. 41, 345 (1930). J. Exptl. Psychol. 17, 763 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1926 (3)

A. Stern, Psychol. Forsch. 7, 1 (1926).
[CrossRef]

N. Feinberg, Psychol. Forsch. 7, 16 (1926).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and M. M. Monroe, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 9, 95 (1926); Am. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 159 (1930).

1924 (1)

1919 (1)

C. V. Raman, Phil. Mag. 38, 568 (1919).
[CrossRef]

1874 (1)

G. Schwalbe, Gaefe–Saemisch Handbuch der ges. Augenheilk.  1, (1874).

1866 (1)

M. Schultze, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 2, 175 (1866).
[CrossRef]

Brøns, J.

J. BrønsActa Ophthalmol, Suppl. 17, (1939); S. H. Bartley, Vision, A Study of its Basis (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1941).

Cowen–Solomons, H. B.

Crozier, W. J.

W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).

DeGroot, S. G.

S. G. DeGroot, J. M. Dodge, and J. A. Smith, “Factors in night vision sensitivity. The effect of brightness.” Bureau Med. Surg. Rept 11, No. 194 (1953).

DeSilva, R. H.

R. H. DeSilva and A. Weber, J. Exptl. Psychol. 15, 399 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Dimmick, F. L.

F. L. Dimmick and J. A. Smith, “The parameters of scotopic sensitivity (1) The effect of size.” Med. Research Lab. Rept. 10, No. 174 (1951).

Dodge, J. M.

S. G. DeGroot, J. M. Dodge, and J. A. Smith, “Factors in night vision sensitivity. The effect of brightness.” Bureau Med. Surg. Rept 11, No. 194 (1953).

Feinberg, N.

N. Feinberg, Psychol. Forsch. 7, 16 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Ferree, C. E.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Am. J. Physiol. 16, 83 (1933).

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and M. M. Monroe, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 9, 95 (1926); Am. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 159 (1930).

Fisher, M. B.

R. A. McFarland and M. B. Fisher, J. Gerontol. 10, 424 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fodor, J.

Measurements of blind spot size on large numbers of individuals between 5 and 92 years show an increase of horizontal and vertical diameter with age. Data to be published. Personal communication by J. Fodor, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary.

Garvey, C. R.

C. R. Garvey, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 83 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Helson, H.

H. Helson, Am. J. Psychol. 41, 345 (1930). J. Exptl. Psychol. 17, 763 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Holway, A. H.

W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).

McFarland, R. A.

R. A. McFarland and M. B. Fisher, J. Gerontol. 10, 424 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michelson, A. A.

Monroe, M. M.

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and M. M. Monroe, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 9, 95 (1926); Am. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 159 (1930).

Østerberg, G. A.

G. A. Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).

Raman, C. V.

C. V. Raman, Phil. Mag. 38, 568 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Rand, G.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Am. J. Physiol. 16, 83 (1933).

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and M. M. Monroe, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 9, 95 (1926); Am. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 159 (1930).

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 2, 175 (1866).
[CrossRef]

Schwalbe, G.

G. Schwalbe, Gaefe–Saemisch Handbuch der ges. Augenheilk.  1, (1874).

Scofield, C. F.

C. F. Scofield, Am. J. Psychol. 42, 213 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).
[PubMed]

Smith, J. A.

S. G. DeGroot, J. M. Dodge, and J. A. Smith, “Factors in night vision sensitivity. The effect of brightness.” Bureau Med. Surg. Rept 11, No. 194 (1953).

F. L. Dimmick and J. A. Smith, “The parameters of scotopic sensitivity (1) The effect of size.” Med. Research Lab. Rept. 10, No. 174 (1951).

Stern, A.

A. Stern, Psychol. Forsch. 7, 1 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, A.

A. Vogt, Lehrbuch and Atlas der Spaltlampenmikroskoie des Lebenden Auges (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, 1931).

Weber, A.

R. H. DeSilva and A. Weber, J. Exptl. Psychol. 15, 399 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

Zigler, M. J.

Acta Ophthalmol (1)

J. BrønsActa Ophthalmol, Suppl. 17, (1939); S. H. Bartley, Vision, A Study of its Basis (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1941).

Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. (1)

G. A. Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).
[PubMed]

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, and M. M. Monroe, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 9, 95 (1926); Am. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 159 (1930).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Am. J. Physiol. 16, 83 (1933).

Am. J. Psychol. (3)

C. F. Scofield, Am. J. Psychol. 42, 213 (1930).
[CrossRef]

H. Helson, Am. J. Psychol. 41, 345 (1930). J. Exptl. Psychol. 17, 763 (1934).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Zigler and E. Wolf, Am. J. Psychol. 71, 186 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Mikr. Anat. (1)

M. Schultze, Arch. Mikr. Anat. 2, 175 (1866).
[CrossRef]

Gaefe–Saemisch Handbuch der ges. Augenheilk (1)

G. Schwalbe, Gaefe–Saemisch Handbuch der ges. Augenheilk.  1, (1874).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (2)

R. H. DeSilva and A. Weber, J. Exptl. Psychol. 15, 399 (1932).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Garvey, J. Exptl. Psychol. 16, 83 (1933).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).

J. Gerontol. (1)

R. A. McFarland and M. B. Fisher, J. Gerontol. 10, 424 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Phil. Mag. (1)

C. V. Raman, Phil. Mag. 38, 568 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Forsch. (2)

A. Stern, Psychol. Forsch. 7, 1 (1926).
[CrossRef]

N. Feinberg, Psychol. Forsch. 7, 16 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Vogt, Lehrbuch and Atlas der Spaltlampenmikroskoie des Lebenden Auges (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, 1931).

Measurements of blind spot size on large numbers of individuals between 5 and 92 years show an increase of horizontal and vertical diameter with age. Data to be published. Personal communication by J. Fodor, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary.

F. L. Dimmick and J. A. Smith, “The parameters of scotopic sensitivity (1) The effect of size.” Med. Research Lab. Rept. 10, No. 174 (1951).

S. G. DeGroot, J. M. Dodge, and J. A. Smith, “Factors in night vision sensitivity. The effect of brightness.” Bureau Med. Surg. Rept 11, No. 194 (1953).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tracings of blind spots of left eye of observers obtained on tangent screen with 1, 3, 6, and 9 mm white targets for in-out and out-in motion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Luminances required for perception of square test fields of 0.5°, 1°, and 2° angular subtense presented on a vertical line running through the blind spot of left eye 15° from fixation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Luminances required for perception of a 1° square test field presented to the left eye on vertical lines 14° and 16° to the left of fixation and running through the blind spot. Bottom: test field presented on dark background; top: test field presented against background luminance of 10.5 mL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminances required for perception of a 1° square test field presented to the left eye on 3 horizontal lines 0°, 2.5° and 5° below the horizontal meridian and running through the blind spot. Bottom: scoptic test conditions; top: tests at a background luminance of 10.5 ml.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dark-adaptation curves obtained with square test fields of 1°,2°, 5°, and 10° angular subtense presented in the temporal retina, centered 15° from fixation and 3° below horizontal (upper curves), and when presented in the nasal retina 15° from fixation and 3° below the horizontal meridian so that center of test field coincides with center of blind spot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationships between log luminance at cone plateau and at the final rod level and log area of test field. For details see text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retinal location and number of sensory elements according to Østerberg. The regularity of the rod distribution curve is disturbed by presence of optic papilla.