Abstract

<p>Although the accuracy required of a primary standard of light is of the order of 0.1%, there is a spread of 1% in the size of the candelas derived from the primary standards constructed at several national laboratories. In this paper, the standard has been critically appraised: Some of the suspected weaknesses have been studied experimentally, others are discussed at length.</p><p>A tantalum susceptor, used around the crucible containing the platinum to absorb the induced currents and heat the platinum indirectly, increased the photometric precision by an order of magnitude. The technique unfortunately introduced excessive contamination of the platinum.</p><p>Since none of the modifications has created the desired improvement in accuracy, other types of light standard may need to be reconsidered.</p>

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  1. M. Debure, Lux 83 (September 1959).
  2. Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd series 20, 119 (1946).
  3. C. W. Waidner and G. K. Burgess, Elec. World 52, 625 (1908).
  4. H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 6, 1103 (1931).
  5. H. Buckley and W. Barnett, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 18, 247 (1937).
  6. Z. Yamauti and T. Iizuka, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 19, Annex P41 (1939).
  7. M. H. Willenberg, Physik. Z. 40, 391 (1939).
  8. M. Debure and N. Leroy, Rev. opt. 31, 529 (1952).
  9. Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 18, Annex P239 (1937).
  10. Proc. Verb. des. Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 19, Annex P58 (1939).
  11. Proc. Verb. des Séeances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 23, Annex P99 (1953).
  12. Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 26-8, Annex P97 and P105 (1958).
  13. J. Preston, Proc. Verb. des. Séances du C.I.P.M. 2nd Series 26-B, Annex P42 (1958).
  14. P. M. Tikhodeev, Proc. Verb. des. Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 26-B, Annex P46 (1958).
  15. C. L. Sanders, B. A. Stevens, and W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 88 (1954).
  16. F. Berger, Z. angew. Math. Mech. 11, 45 (1931).
  17. D. N. de G. Allen and R. T. Severn, Quart, J. Mech. Appl. Math. 5, part 4 (1952).
  18. R. P. Teele, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1135 (1960); 52, 826 (1962).
  19. H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Nati. Bur. Standards 13, 161 (1934).
  20. C. Tingwaldt and H. Kunz, Optik 15, 333 (1958).
  21. M. De Selincourt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 695 (1939).
  22. H. Wagenbreth, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 26A, T123 (1959).
  23. C. Tingwaldt and H. Kunz, Wiss. Abh. P.T.B. 9, 32 (1957).
  24. E. H. McLaren, Can. J. Phys. 35, 1086–1106 (1957).
  25. M. J. Laubitz, Can. J. Phys. 37, 1114 (1959).
  26. A. W. Gray, Bull. Bur. Standards 10, 451 (1914).
  27. J. B. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. 12, 81 (1918) .
  28. W. H. Davenport, S. S. Kistler, W. M. Wheildon, and O. J. Whittemore, Jr., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 33, 333 (1950).
  29. M. H. Leipold and J. L. Taylor, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, 1961, paper C. 5.2.
  30. C. T. Sims, G. B. Gaines, and R. I. Jaffee, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 112 (1959).
  31. L. J. Collier (private communication).
  32. O. C. Jones and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 105 (1961).
  33. R. G. Beuttel and A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instr. 26, 357 (1949).
  34. J. Terrien, Recent Developments and Techniques in the Maintenance of Standards (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1952), p. 68.
  35. It is a plcasurc to acknowlcdge the helpful discussions on this problem with Dr. M. De of the University of Calcutta (formerly an NRC Postdoctorate Fellow).
  36. G. B. Airy, Cambridge Phil. Trans. 283 (1834) or T. Preston and A. W. Porter, The Theory of Lighit (Macmillan and Company Ltd., London, 1928), p. 324.
  37. Lord Rayleigh, Sci. Papers 1, 513; Phil. Mag. 11, 214 (1881).
  38. J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941), p. 359.
  39. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959), Chaps. 8, 9, and 10.
  40. M. Hansen and K. Anderko, Constitution of Binary Alloys (McGraw-Hill, Book Company, Inc., New York, 1958).
  41. R. F. Vines, The Platinum Metals and Their Alloys (International Nickel Company Inc., New York, 1941).
  42. Ingot No. 2 was heated in vacuum to about 1100°C on 11 days and in argon to above 1700°C on 10 days before it was analyzed. Ingot No. 1 was used about twice as many times before it was analyzed.
  43. D. Bradley and E. G. Entwistle, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, 1961, paper B.7.3.
  44. J. W. Whiteley and C. Dietz, Tech. Publ. No. 84, AIME.
  45. Rointan F. Bunshah, Vacuum Metallurgy (Rheinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1958), p. 202.
  46. M. Fishenden and O. A. Saunders, An Introduction to Heat Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).
  47. I. E. Campbell, Highz Temperature Tecknology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1956), p. 52.
  48. Teele18 has shown that the temperature drop in the sight tube is not constant along its length. Most of the energy is apparently conducted through the wall at the top of the sight tube near the opening and the temperature drop in the wall near the bottom is much less. Therefore if the lens views only the bottom of the sight tube there will be a luminance decrease from the ideal of less than 0.1% instead of 0.6%.
  49. M. S. Burton, Applied Metallurgy for Engineers (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1956).
  50. M. Z. Yamauti, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 16, 243 (1933).
  51. A. Gouffe, Rev. opt. 24, 1 (1945).
  52. J. C. De Vos, Physica 20, 669 (1954).

Airy, G. B.

G. B. Airy, Cambridge Phil. Trans. 283 (1834) or T. Preston and A. W. Porter, The Theory of Lighit (Macmillan and Company Ltd., London, 1928), p. 324.

Allen, D. N. de G.

D. N. de G. Allen and R. T. Severn, Quart, J. Mech. Appl. Math. 5, part 4 (1952).

Anderko, K.

M. Hansen and K. Anderko, Constitution of Binary Alloys (McGraw-Hill, Book Company, Inc., New York, 1958).

Barbrow, L. E.

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Nati. Bur. Standards 13, 161 (1934).

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 6, 1103 (1931).

Barnett, W.

H. Buckley and W. Barnett, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 18, 247 (1937).

Berger, F.

F. Berger, Z. angew. Math. Mech. 11, 45 (1931).

Beuttel, R. G.

R. G. Beuttel and A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instr. 26, 357 (1949).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959), Chaps. 8, 9, and 10.

Bradley, D.

D. Bradley and E. G. Entwistle, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, 1961, paper B.7.3.

Brewer, A. W.

R. G. Beuttel and A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instr. 26, 357 (1949).

Buckley, H.

H. Buckley and W. Barnett, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 18, 247 (1937).

Bunshah, Rointan F.

Rointan F. Bunshah, Vacuum Metallurgy (Rheinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1958), p. 202.

Burgess, G. K.

C. W. Waidner and G. K. Burgess, Elec. World 52, 625 (1908).

Burton, M. S.

M. S. Burton, Applied Metallurgy for Engineers (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1956).

Caldwell, F. R.

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 6, 1103 (1931).

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Nati. Bur. Standards 13, 161 (1934).

Campbell, I. E.

I. E. Campbell, Highz Temperature Tecknology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1956), p. 52.

Collier, L. J.

L. J. Collier (private communication).

Davenport, W. H.

W. H. Davenport, S. S. Kistler, W. M. Wheildon, and O. J. Whittemore, Jr., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 33, 333 (1950).

Debure, M.

M. Debure, Lux 83 (September 1959).

M. Debure and N. Leroy, Rev. opt. 31, 529 (1952).

Dietz, C.

J. W. Whiteley and C. Dietz, Tech. Publ. No. 84, AIME.

Entwistle, E. G.

D. Bradley and E. G. Entwistle, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, 1961, paper B.7.3.

Ferguson, J. B.

J. B. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. 12, 81 (1918) .

Fishenden, M.

M. Fishenden and O. A. Saunders, An Introduction to Heat Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).

Gaines, G. B.

C. T. Sims, G. B. Gaines, and R. I. Jaffee, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 112 (1959).

Gouffe, A.

A. Gouffe, Rev. opt. 24, 1 (1945).

Gray, A. W.

A. W. Gray, Bull. Bur. Standards 10, 451 (1914).

Hansen, M.

M. Hansen and K. Anderko, Constitution of Binary Alloys (McGraw-Hill, Book Company, Inc., New York, 1958).

Iizuka, T.

Z. Yamauti and T. Iizuka, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 19, Annex P41 (1939).

Jaffee, R. I.

C. T. Sims, G. B. Gaines, and R. I. Jaffee, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 112 (1959).

Jones, O. C.

O. C. Jones and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 105 (1961).

Kistler, S. S.

W. H. Davenport, S. S. Kistler, W. M. Wheildon, and O. J. Whittemore, Jr., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 33, 333 (1950).

Kunz, H.

C. Tingwaldt and H. Kunz, Optik 15, 333 (1958).

C. Tingwaldt and H. Kunz, Wiss. Abh. P.T.B. 9, 32 (1957).

Laubitz, M. J.

M. J. Laubitz, Can. J. Phys. 37, 1114 (1959).

Leipold, M. H.

M. H. Leipold and J. L. Taylor, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, 1961, paper C. 5.2.

Leroy, N.

M. Debure and N. Leroy, Rev. opt. 31, 529 (1952).

McLaren, E. H.

E. H. McLaren, Can. J. Phys. 35, 1086–1106 (1957).

Middleton, W. E. K.

C. L. Sanders, B. A. Stevens, and W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 88 (1954).

Preston, J.

J. Preston, Proc. Verb. des. Séances du C.I.P.M. 2nd Series 26-B, Annex P42 (1958).

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh, Sci. Papers 1, 513; Phil. Mag. 11, 214 (1881).

Roeser, W. F.

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 6, 1103 (1931).

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Nati. Bur. Standards 13, 161 (1934).

Sanders, C. L.

C. L. Sanders, B. A. Stevens, and W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 88 (1954).

O. C. Jones and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 105 (1961).

Saunders, O. A.

M. Fishenden and O. A. Saunders, An Introduction to Heat Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).

Selincourt, M. De

M. De Selincourt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 695 (1939).

Severn, R. T.

D. N. de G. Allen and R. T. Severn, Quart, J. Mech. Appl. Math. 5, part 4 (1952).

Sims, C. T.

C. T. Sims, G. B. Gaines, and R. I. Jaffee, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 112 (1959).

Stevens, B. A.

C. L. Sanders, B. A. Stevens, and W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 88 (1954).

Stratton, J. A.

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941), p. 359.

Taylor, J. L.

M. H. Leipold and J. L. Taylor, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, 1961, paper C. 5.2.

Teele, R. P.

R. P. Teele, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1135 (1960); 52, 826 (1962).

Terrien, J.

J. Terrien, Recent Developments and Techniques in the Maintenance of Standards (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1952), p. 68.

Tikhodeev, P. M.

P. M. Tikhodeev, Proc. Verb. des. Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 26-B, Annex P46 (1958).

Tingwaldt, C.

C. Tingwaldt and H. Kunz, Optik 15, 333 (1958).

C. Tingwaldt and H. Kunz, Wiss. Abh. P.T.B. 9, 32 (1957).

Vines, R. F.

R. F. Vines, The Platinum Metals and Their Alloys (International Nickel Company Inc., New York, 1941).

Vos, J. C. De

J. C. De Vos, Physica 20, 669 (1954).

Wagenbreth, H.

H. Wagenbreth, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 26A, T123 (1959).

Waidner, C. W.

C. W. Waidner and G. K. Burgess, Elec. World 52, 625 (1908).

Wensel, H. T.

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 6, 1103 (1931).

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Nati. Bur. Standards 13, 161 (1934).

Wheildon, W. M.

W. H. Davenport, S. S. Kistler, W. M. Wheildon, and O. J. Whittemore, Jr., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 33, 333 (1950).

Whiteley, J. W.

J. W. Whiteley and C. Dietz, Tech. Publ. No. 84, AIME.

Whittemore, Jr., O. J.

W. H. Davenport, S. S. Kistler, W. M. Wheildon, and O. J. Whittemore, Jr., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 33, 333 (1950).

Willenberg, M. H.

M. H. Willenberg, Physik. Z. 40, 391 (1939).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959), Chaps. 8, 9, and 10.

Yamauti, M. Z.

M. Z. Yamauti, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 16, 243 (1933).

Yamauti, Z.

Z. Yamauti and T. Iizuka, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 19, Annex P41 (1939).

Other (52)

M. Debure, Lux 83 (September 1959).

Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd series 20, 119 (1946).

C. W. Waidner and G. K. Burgess, Elec. World 52, 625 (1908).

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 6, 1103 (1931).

H. Buckley and W. Barnett, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 18, 247 (1937).

Z. Yamauti and T. Iizuka, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 19, Annex P41 (1939).

M. H. Willenberg, Physik. Z. 40, 391 (1939).

M. Debure and N. Leroy, Rev. opt. 31, 529 (1952).

Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 18, Annex P239 (1937).

Proc. Verb. des. Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 19, Annex P58 (1939).

Proc. Verb. des Séeances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 23, Annex P99 (1953).

Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 26-8, Annex P97 and P105 (1958).

J. Preston, Proc. Verb. des. Séances du C.I.P.M. 2nd Series 26-B, Annex P42 (1958).

P. M. Tikhodeev, Proc. Verb. des. Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 26-B, Annex P46 (1958).

C. L. Sanders, B. A. Stevens, and W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 88 (1954).

F. Berger, Z. angew. Math. Mech. 11, 45 (1931).

D. N. de G. Allen and R. T. Severn, Quart, J. Mech. Appl. Math. 5, part 4 (1952).

R. P. Teele, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1135 (1960); 52, 826 (1962).

H. T. Wensel, W. F. Roeser, L. E. Barbrow, and F. R. Caldwell, J. Research Nati. Bur. Standards 13, 161 (1934).

C. Tingwaldt and H. Kunz, Optik 15, 333 (1958).

M. De Selincourt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 51, 695 (1939).

H. Wagenbreth, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 26A, T123 (1959).

C. Tingwaldt and H. Kunz, Wiss. Abh. P.T.B. 9, 32 (1957).

E. H. McLaren, Can. J. Phys. 35, 1086–1106 (1957).

M. J. Laubitz, Can. J. Phys. 37, 1114 (1959).

A. W. Gray, Bull. Bur. Standards 10, 451 (1914).

J. B. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. 12, 81 (1918) .

W. H. Davenport, S. S. Kistler, W. M. Wheildon, and O. J. Whittemore, Jr., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 33, 333 (1950).

M. H. Leipold and J. L. Taylor, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, 1961, paper C. 5.2.

C. T. Sims, G. B. Gaines, and R. I. Jaffee, Rev. Sci. Instr. 30, 112 (1959).

L. J. Collier (private communication).

O. C. Jones and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 105 (1961).

R. G. Beuttel and A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instr. 26, 357 (1949).

J. Terrien, Recent Developments and Techniques in the Maintenance of Standards (Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1952), p. 68.

It is a plcasurc to acknowlcdge the helpful discussions on this problem with Dr. M. De of the University of Calcutta (formerly an NRC Postdoctorate Fellow).

G. B. Airy, Cambridge Phil. Trans. 283 (1834) or T. Preston and A. W. Porter, The Theory of Lighit (Macmillan and Company Ltd., London, 1928), p. 324.

Lord Rayleigh, Sci. Papers 1, 513; Phil. Mag. 11, 214 (1881).

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941), p. 359.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959), Chaps. 8, 9, and 10.

M. Hansen and K. Anderko, Constitution of Binary Alloys (McGraw-Hill, Book Company, Inc., New York, 1958).

R. F. Vines, The Platinum Metals and Their Alloys (International Nickel Company Inc., New York, 1941).

Ingot No. 2 was heated in vacuum to about 1100°C on 11 days and in argon to above 1700°C on 10 days before it was analyzed. Ingot No. 1 was used about twice as many times before it was analyzed.

D. Bradley and E. G. Entwistle, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, 1961, paper B.7.3.

J. W. Whiteley and C. Dietz, Tech. Publ. No. 84, AIME.

Rointan F. Bunshah, Vacuum Metallurgy (Rheinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1958), p. 202.

M. Fishenden and O. A. Saunders, An Introduction to Heat Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).

I. E. Campbell, Highz Temperature Tecknology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1956), p. 52.

Teele18 has shown that the temperature drop in the sight tube is not constant along its length. Most of the energy is apparently conducted through the wall at the top of the sight tube near the opening and the temperature drop in the wall near the bottom is much less. Therefore if the lens views only the bottom of the sight tube there will be a luminance decrease from the ideal of less than 0.1% instead of 0.6%.

M. S. Burton, Applied Metallurgy for Engineers (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1956).

M. Z. Yamauti, Proc. Verb. des Séances du C.I.P.M., 2nd Series 16, 243 (1933).

A. Gouffe, Rev. opt. 24, 1 (1945).

J. C. De Vos, Physica 20, 669 (1954).

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