Abstract

In a photographic printing process, the granularity mottle which represents the printed-through granularity pattern of the negative can be analyzed best by means of the Weiner spectrum of its density fluctuations. A theory is given for the linear transfer of granularity through a printing process, and results are given for a series of optical and contact prints. The case of mottle arising in x-ray screen exposures is similar; it is shown that the measuring techniques will evaluate the effects of various screens.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. C. Higgins and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 925 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 799 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. J. Zweig, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 805, 812 (1956); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 238 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Marriage and E. Pitts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1019 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  5. This term is now being used by the Kodak Research Laboratories in place of what has been variously called “sine-wave response,” “contrast transmission function,” etc., in accordance with recommendations formulated in July, 1961, by the Subcommittee for Image Assessment Problems of the International Commission for Optics.See J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1441 (1961).
  6. R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 490 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Lamberts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 425 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  8. The data presented in this paper are representative of the emulsions manufactured at the time the experiments were made. However, it must be recognized that the characteristics of products of the same name may vary within manufacturing tolerances and may change significantly as improvements are effected.
  9. K. Rossmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).

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1958 (1)

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1955 (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Model for granularity transfer through an optical system. Distribution of energy E in positive P is determined from granularity spectrum (in terms of transmittance) T(ξ) of negative N, spread function A0(ξ) of optical system L, and spread function AF(ξ) of positive P.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wiener spectrum of contact print of Kodak Tri-X Film on Kodak Panatomic-X Film and spectrum of each film alone. “Print” curve is calculated from the other two; open circles are measured values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wiener spectrum of optical print of Kodak Tri-X Film on Kodak Plus-X Film and spectrum of each film alone. “Print” curve is calculated from the other two and the modulation transfer function of the printer; open circles are measured values. (This Tri-X sample is not the one whose curve is shown in Fig. 2.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modulation transfer function of a certain lens as measured by a routine method (curve) and as measured by using granularity of a negative as a “white-noise” generator (open circles).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wiener spectra of three different types of x-ray intensifying screens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wiener spectra of nonduplitized x-ray film exposed between intensifying screens. One curve is for the negative focused in the microphotometer as usual; the second is for the sample reversed to separate the silver deposit from the focal point by the film base; the third is the sum of the others to represent the spectrum had the film been duplitized.

Equations (7)

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E ( x ) = E T ( ξ ) A ( x ξ ) d ξ .
Φ ( ν ) = lim X 1 2 X | X X f ( x ) e 2 π i ν x d x | 2 ,
Φ P ( ν ; E ) = E 2 Φ N ( ν ; T ) | A # ( ν ) | 2 .
D ( x ) = γ log E ( x ) , Φ [ ν ; log E ( x ) ] = ( 0.43 ) 2 Φ [ ν ; E ( x ) ] / E ( x ) Av 2 .
Φ P ( ν ; D ) = γ 2 ( 0.43 ) 2 Φ ( ν ; E ) / E 2 T ¯ 2 .
Φ P ( ν ; D ) = γ 2 Φ N ( ν ; D ) | A # ( ν ) | 2 .
Φ ( ν ; D ) = γ 2 Φ N ( ν ; D ) | A # ( ν ) | 2 + Φ p ( ν ; D ) ,