Abstract

The transmission and absorption properties of turbid media have been examined with Kubelka and Munk’s theory of the optics of intensely scattering material. The equation for the optical density of such material as a function of thickness has been derived and examined experimentally. It is shown that the reflectivity and scattering coefficient can be determined absolutely without reference to a standard material from the optical-density measurements. The absorption spectra of pigments in scattering media and in clear solution have been compared. It is shown that light in passing through a turbid sample may traverse an optical path which is many times the sample thickness. The practical consequence of this increased path length is an intensification of the absorption bands of pigments in light-scattering media. The theoretical expression for this intensification has been derived and tested experimentally. Spectral effects due to the physical binding of pigment molecules to the scattering particles have also been examined.

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  1. W. L. Butler and K. H. Norris, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 87; 31 (1960).
  2. K. H. Norris and W. L. Butler, IRE Trans. Bio-Medical Electronics BME-8, 153 (1961).
  3. W. L. Butler and K. H. Norris, Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, edited by H. F. Linskens and M. V. Tracey (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).
  4. H. J. Channon, F. F. Renwick, and B. V. Storr. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A94, 222 (1918).
  5. P. Kubelka and F. Munk, Z. tech. Physik 12, 593 (1931).
  6. S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 61 (1942).
  7. D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat'l. Bur. Standards 19, 287 (1937).
  8. J. L. Saunderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 727 (1942).
  9. The mention of specific names or trade names is for the purpose of identification and does not imply any endorsement by the United States Government.
  10. P. Kubelka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 448 (1947).
  11. J. A. Van den Akker, Tappi 32, 498 (1949).
  12. P. Latimer, Plant Physiol. 34, 193 (1959).
  13. E. Charney (personal communication).
  14. H. Meistre, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quart. Biol. 3, 191 (1935).
  15. D. Keilin and E. F. Hartree, Nature 164, 254 (1949).
  16. L. M. M. Duysens, Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 19, 1 (1956).

Butler, W. L.

W. L. Butler and K. H. Norris, Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, edited by H. F. Linskens and M. V. Tracey (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

W. L. Butler and K. H. Norris, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 87; 31 (1960).

K. H. Norris and W. L. Butler, IRE Trans. Bio-Medical Electronics BME-8, 153 (1961).

Channon, H. J.

H. J. Channon, F. F. Renwick, and B. V. Storr. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A94, 222 (1918).

Charney, E.

E. Charney (personal communication).

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 61 (1942).

Duysens, L. M. M.

L. M. M. Duysens, Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 19, 1 (1956).

Hartree, E. F.

D. Keilin and E. F. Hartree, Nature 164, 254 (1949).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat'l. Bur. Standards 19, 287 (1937).

Keilin, D.

D. Keilin and E. F. Hartree, Nature 164, 254 (1949).

Kubelka, P.

P. Kubelka and F. Munk, Z. tech. Physik 12, 593 (1931).

P. Kubelka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 448 (1947).

Latimer, P.

P. Latimer, Plant Physiol. 34, 193 (1959).

Meistre, H.

H. Meistre, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quart. Biol. 3, 191 (1935).

Munk, F.

P. Kubelka and F. Munk, Z. tech. Physik 12, 593 (1931).

Norris, K. H.

W. L. Butler and K. H. Norris, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 87; 31 (1960).

K. H. Norris and W. L. Butler, IRE Trans. Bio-Medical Electronics BME-8, 153 (1961).

W. L. Butler and K. H. Norris, Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, edited by H. F. Linskens and M. V. Tracey (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

Renwick, F. F.

H. J. Channon, F. F. Renwick, and B. V. Storr. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A94, 222 (1918).

Saunderson, J. L.

J. L. Saunderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 727 (1942).

Storr, B. V.

H. J. Channon, F. F. Renwick, and B. V. Storr. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A94, 222 (1918).

Van den Akker, J. A.

J. A. Van den Akker, Tappi 32, 498 (1949).

Other (16)

W. L. Butler and K. H. Norris, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 87; 31 (1960).

K. H. Norris and W. L. Butler, IRE Trans. Bio-Medical Electronics BME-8, 153 (1961).

W. L. Butler and K. H. Norris, Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, edited by H. F. Linskens and M. V. Tracey (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

H. J. Channon, F. F. Renwick, and B. V. Storr. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A94, 222 (1918).

P. Kubelka and F. Munk, Z. tech. Physik 12, 593 (1931).

S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 61 (1942).

D. B. Judd, J. Research Nat'l. Bur. Standards 19, 287 (1937).

J. L. Saunderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 727 (1942).

The mention of specific names or trade names is for the purpose of identification and does not imply any endorsement by the United States Government.

P. Kubelka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 448 (1947).

J. A. Van den Akker, Tappi 32, 498 (1949).

P. Latimer, Plant Physiol. 34, 193 (1959).

E. Charney (personal communication).

H. Meistre, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia Quart. Biol. 3, 191 (1935).

D. Keilin and E. F. Hartree, Nature 164, 254 (1949).

L. M. M. Duysens, Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 19, 1 (1956).

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