Abstract

<p>Temperature discrimination in optical and radiation pyrometers using photoelectric detectors is discussed and analyzed for the two cases where the discrimination is limited by noise in the detector and by the fundamental fluctuations in the radiation stream reaching the detector, respectively. The design of amplifiers consistent with these limits and the limits imposed by reference source instability is also discussed briefly. Graphical data are given for the calculation of detection limits for each of the two cases for both broad-spectral-bandwidth pyrometers with various long-wavelength cutoffs and for narrow-bandwidth pyrometers at various wavelengths.</p><p>The data are especially relevant to pyrometer design when the measurement of transients, small sources, or low temperatures is involved, and also in the design of narrow-spectral-bandwidth pyrometers for realizing temperature scales. For this last case an analysis is given for estimating the optimum spectral bandwidth required to obtain the maximum scale accuracy. It is shown that it should be possible to realize the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS) with an accuracy of about 0.01°C near 1063°C and 0.1°C near 1769°C by using a special trialkali photosurface photomultiplier or a silicon photodiode at a 1.0-µ wavelength. The accuracy of realization of a radiation scale of temperature below 1063°C is also discussed.</p>

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  1. E. H. MacLaren, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).
  2. H. Wagenbreth, Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procés-Verbaux T123 (1959).
  3. V. A. Kovalevski, Soviet Instr. Exptl. Techniques 444 (1959).
  4. R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones and R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infra-Red Radiation (Oxford University Press, New York, 1957).
  5. G. K. T. Conn and D. G. Avery, Infrared Methods (Academic Press Inc., New York 1960).
  6. F. H. R. Almer and G. P. van Zanten, Philips Tech. Rev. 20, 89 (1958–59).
  7. J. Middlehurst and T. P. Jones, J. Sci. Instr. 38, 202 (1961).
  8. L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).
  9. G. D. Nutter, Fourth Symposium on Temperature. Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).
  10. R. D. Lee, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).
  11. J. S. Lord, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published, 1962).
  12. P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962).
  13. M. M. Fulk, M. M. Reynolds, and R. M. Burley, in American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1957).
  14. D. R. Lovejoy, Can. J. Phys. 36, 1397 (1958).
  15. J. A. Dobrowolski, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 794 (1959).
  16. I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, and G. A. Krakhmalnikova, Soviet Measurement Techniques 112 (1960).
  17. L. H. Treiman, Fourth Symposium on Temperature. Columbus, Ohio, March 1961. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).
  18. H. Moser, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published, 1962).

Almer, F. H. R.

F. H. R. Almer and G. P. van Zanten, Philips Tech. Rev. 20, 89 (1958–59).

Avery, D. G.

G. K. T. Conn and D. G. Avery, Infrared Methods (Academic Press Inc., New York 1960).

Bojarski, L. A.

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

Burley, R. M.

M. M. Fulk, M. M. Reynolds, and R. M. Burley, in American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1957).

Chasmar, R. P.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones and R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infra-Red Radiation (Oxford University Press, New York, 1957).

Conn, G. K. T.

G. K. T. Conn and D. G. Avery, Infrared Methods (Academic Press Inc., New York 1960).

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 794 (1959).

Fulk, M. M.

M. M. Fulk, M. M. Reynolds, and R. M. Burley, in American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1957).

Gordov, A. N.

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

Ioselson, G. L.

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

Jones, F. E.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones and R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infra-Red Radiation (Oxford University Press, New York, 1957).

Jones, T. P.

J. Middlehurst and T. P. Jones, J. Sci. Instr. 38, 202 (1961).

Kandiba, V. V.

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

Kirenkov, I. I.

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, and G. A. Krakhmalnikova, Soviet Measurement Techniques 112 (1960).

Kovalevski, V. A.

I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, and G. A. Krakhmalnikova, Soviet Measurement Techniques 112 (1960).

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

V. A. Kovalevski, Soviet Instr. Exptl. Techniques 444 (1959).

Krakhmalnikova, G. A.

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, and G. A. Krakhmalnikova, Soviet Measurement Techniques 112 (1960).

Kruse, P. W.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962).

Lapina, E. A.

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

Lee, R. D.

R. D. Lee, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).

Lord, J. S.

J. S. Lord, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published, 1962).

Lovejoy, D. R.

D. R. Lovejoy, Can. J. Phys. 36, 1397 (1958).

MacLaren, E. H.

E. H. MacLaren, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).

McGlauchlin, L. D.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962).

McQuistan, R. B.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962).

Middlehurst, J.

J. Middlehurst and T. P. Jones, J. Sci. Instr. 38, 202 (1961).

Moser, H.

H. Moser, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published, 1962).

Nutter, G. D.

G. D. Nutter, Fourth Symposium on Temperature. Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).

Reynolds, M. M.

M. M. Fulk, M. M. Reynolds, and R. M. Burley, in American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1957).

Smith, R. A.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones and R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infra-Red Radiation (Oxford University Press, New York, 1957).

Tarajanz, K. G.

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

Treiman, L. H.

L. H. Treiman, Fourth Symposium on Temperature. Columbus, Ohio, March 1961. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).

van Zanten, G. P.

F. H. R. Almer and G. P. van Zanten, Philips Tech. Rev. 20, 89 (1958–59).

Wagenbreth, H.

H. Wagenbreth, Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procés-Verbaux T123 (1959).

Other

E. H. MacLaren, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).

H. Wagenbreth, Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procés-Verbaux T123 (1959).

V. A. Kovalevski, Soviet Instr. Exptl. Techniques 444 (1959).

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones and R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infra-Red Radiation (Oxford University Press, New York, 1957).

G. K. T. Conn and D. G. Avery, Infrared Methods (Academic Press Inc., New York 1960).

F. H. R. Almer and G. P. van Zanten, Philips Tech. Rev. 20, 89 (1958–59).

J. Middlehurst and T. P. Jones, J. Sci. Instr. 38, 202 (1961).

L. A. Bojarski, A. N. Gordov. G. L. Ioselson, V. V. Kandiba, I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, G. A. Krakhmalnikova, E. A. Lapina, and K. G. Tarajanz. Comité Intern. Poids et Mesures Procès-Verbaux T151 (1959).

G. D. Nutter, Fourth Symposium on Temperature. Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).

R. D. Lee, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).

J. S. Lord, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961 Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published, 1962).

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1962).

M. M. Fulk, M. M. Reynolds, and R. M. Burley, in American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1957).

D. R. Lovejoy, Can. J. Phys. 36, 1397 (1958).

J. A. Dobrowolski, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 794 (1959).

I. I. Kirenkov, V. A. Kovalevski, and G. A. Krakhmalnikova, Soviet Measurement Techniques 112 (1960).

L. H. Treiman, Fourth Symposium on Temperature. Columbus, Ohio, March 1961. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published 1962).

H. Moser, Fourth Symposium on Temperature, Columbus, Ohio, March 1961. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, (to be published, 1962).

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