Abstract

The specular reflectance of evaporated aluminum films has been measured with high precision (±0.1%) from 0.55 to 32 μ. The measurements were made at normal incidence on fresh and aged films deposited on fuzed quartz substrates with rapid evaporation rates at pressures of about 1×10−5 Torr. The dependence of the reflectance on the evaporation conditions was also investigated, and it was found that the infrared reflectance of aluminum prepared under the usual high-vacuum conditions is reproducible and insensitive to the conditions of film preparation. Although the measured reflectance of freshly evaporated aluminum films differs by only 0.1% at 30 μ from the value calculated from the free-electron approximation assuming bulk parameters for aluminum, the variation of the measured reflectance with wavelength does not fit the theory in the infrared. It is felt that the validity of the free-electron approximation should be further tested by using films deposited in ultra-high vacuum.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. W. W. Coblentz, Tech. News Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 197 (1911).
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  8. L. G. Schulz and F. R. Tangherlini, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 362 (1954).
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  9. J. N. Hodgson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 593 (1955).
  10. J. R. Beattie, Phil. Mag. 46, 235 (1955).
  11. Obtained from the Aluminum Company of America.
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  14. G. N. Srivastava and G. D. Scott, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 255 (1961).
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  30. L. G. Schulz, Advances in Phys. 6, 102 (1957).
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  31. H. Mendlowitz, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 75, 664 (1960).
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1961 (4)

G. N. Srivastava and G. D. Scott, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 255 (1961).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Melmed and R. Gomer, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 1802 (1961).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass and J. E. Waylonis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 719 (1961).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Bennett and J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (3)

1959 (1)

J. Hasse, Z. Physik 157, 166 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (2)

1957 (2)

1955 (4)

J. N. Hodgson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 593 (1955).

J. R. Beattie, Phil. Mag. 46, 235 (1955).

G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 945 (1955).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Koehler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1015 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (2)

1953 (1)

1950 (1)

G. Hass and N. W. Scott, J. phys. radium 11, 394 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

W. Walkenhorst, Z. Tech. Physik 22, 14 (1941).

1936 (1)

J. Strong, Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

E. Gaviola and J. Strong, Phys. Rev. 48, 136 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

W. Woltersdorff, Z. Physik 91, 230 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1911 (1)

W. W. Coblentz, Tech. News Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 197 (1911).
[CrossRef]

1906 (1)

W. W. Coblentz, Tech. News Bull. Bur. Standards 2, 470 (1906).

Beattie, J. R.

J. R. Beattie, Phil. Mag. 46, 235 (1955).

Beaumont, D.

Bennett, H. E.

Berning, P. H.

Coblentz, W. W.

W. W. Coblentz, Tech. News Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 197 (1911).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Coblentz, Tech. News Bull. Bur. Standards 2, 470 (1906).

Gates, D. M.

Gaviola, E.

E. Gaviola and J. Strong, Phys. Rev. 48, 136 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Gomer, R.

A. J. Melmed and R. Gomer, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 1802 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

G. Hass and J. E. Waylonis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 719 (1961).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1070 (1957).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 945 (1955).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass and N. W. Scott, J. phys. radium 11, 394 (1950).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass (private communication).

G. Hass, American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1957), pp. 6–108.

Hasse, J.

J. Hasse, Z. Physik 157, 166 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, J. N.

J. N. Hodgson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 593 (1955).

Holland, L.

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958), p. 328.

Hunter, W. R.

Koehler, W. F.

Madden, R. P.

Malitson, I. H.

Melmed, A. J.

A. J. Melmed and R. Gomer, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 1802 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Mendlowitz, H.

H. Mendlowitz, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 75, 664 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, F. V.

Porteus, J. O.

Rodney, W. S.

Schulz, L. G.

Scott, G. D.

G. N. Srivastava and G. D. Scott, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 255 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Scott, N. W.

G. Hass and N. W. Scott, J. phys. radium 11, 394 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, C. C.

Srivastava, G. N.

G. N. Srivastava and G. D. Scott, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 255 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Strong, J.

J. Strong, Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
[CrossRef]

E. Gaviola and J. Strong, Phys. Rev. 48, 136 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Tangherlini, F. R.

Tousey, R.

Walkenhorst, W.

W. Walkenhorst, Z. Tech. Physik 22, 14 (1941).

Waylonis, J. E.

Woltersdorff, W.

W. Woltersdorff, Z. Physik 91, 230 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Advances in Phys. (1)

L. G. Schulz, Advances in Phys. 6, 102 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. Strong, Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. N. Srivastava and G. D. Scott, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 255 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. J. Melmed and R. Gomer, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 1802 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (12)

J. phys. radium (1)

G. Hass and N. W. Scott, J. phys. radium 11, 394 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Mag. (1)

J. R. Beattie, Phil. Mag. 46, 235 (1955).

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. Gaviola and J. Strong, Phys. Rev. 48, 136 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (2)

H. Mendlowitz, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 75, 664 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Hodgson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 593 (1955).

Tech. News Bull. Bur. Standards (2)

W. W. Coblentz, Tech. News Bull. Bur. Standards 2, 470 (1906).

W. W. Coblentz, Tech. News Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 197 (1911).
[CrossRef]

Z. Physik (2)

W. Woltersdorff, Z. Physik 91, 230 (1934).
[CrossRef]

J. Hasse, Z. Physik 157, 166 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tech. Physik (1)

W. Walkenhorst, Z. Tech. Physik 22, 14 (1941).

Other (5)

Obtained from the Aluminum Company of America.

G. Hass (private communication).

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958), p. 328.

G. Hass, American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1957), pp. 6–108.

See reference 19, p. 320.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the evaporation system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the reflectometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance of aluminum from 1 to 32 μ. Values for freshly evaporated aluminum are shown by the dotted line and for aged aluminum by the solid line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance of aluminum from 0.55 to 1.5 μ. Values for freshly evaporated aluminum are shown by the dotted line and for aged aluminum by the solid line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated decrease in reflectance of aluminum resulting from the formation of oxide layers of various thicknesses. The oxide thickness for each curve is shown beneath it.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated thicknesses of aluminum required to lower the reflectance below that of opaque aluminum by an amount ΔR.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Reflectance of evaporated aluminum films.