Abstract

Flashes having durations of 10, 20, 50, and 100 msec were matched in brightness to an adjacent 200-msec standard. When the standard and test stimuli terminated together, the results confirmed earlier demonstrations of the Broca—Sulzer phenomenon. Different functions relating the growth of brightness to duration were generated, however, when the flashes matched to each other had coincident onsets or coincident mid-durations. The matches made with stimuli terminating together were shown to exhibit transitivity: Targets which are as bright as a standard are approximately as bright as each other. Finally, an effect of relative luminance on apparent temporal position is described.

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References

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  1. B. Hillman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 422 (1958) and E. Baumgardt and B. Hillman, ibid. 51, 340 (1961) are the most recent of many studies of foveal and peripheral reciprocity relations.
  2. Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957), pp. 291–293.
  3. M. Alpern, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 648 (1953).
  4. W. McDougall, Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 151 (1904). McDougall's "indirect method" could be used only to determine the "action time" of a flash, i.e., that duration of stimulus which yields maximal brightness.
  5. D. Raab, E. Fehrer, and M. Hershenson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 61, 193 (1961).
  6. D. Raab and E. Fehrer, J. Exptl. Psychol. (to be published).
  7. D. Raab, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 298 (1962).
  8. S. S. Stevens, Am. J. Psychol. 69, 1 (1956).
  9. D. Raab, Science 135, 42 (1962).
  10. M. S. Katz, "The Perceived Brightness of Light Flashes," Ph.D. thesis, University of Rochester (1959).
  11. M. A. Bills, Psychol. Monogr. 28, No. 5 (1920).
  12. W. H. Stainton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 26 (1928).
  13. R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), p. 741.
  14. P. A. Kolers and B. S. Rosner, Am. J. Psychol. 73, 2 (1960).
  15. Let Δt= the onset asynchrony between the standard and variable flashes. Let d = the duration of the variable flash. The three conditions are then defined as follows: 1. Δt=0; 2. Δt=200-d; 3. Δt=100-½d.
  16. R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, Inc., New York, 1954), revised ed., pp. 197–198.
  17. See reference 13, p. 742.
  18. Our equipment cannot generate luminances greater than 101 dB; below 73 dB, the test flash appeared too faint for positional judgments to be made.

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 648 (1953).

Bills, M. A.

M. A. Bills, Psychol. Monogr. 28, No. 5 (1920).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), p. 741.

Fehrer, E.

D. Raab and E. Fehrer, J. Exptl. Psychol. (to be published).

D. Raab, E. Fehrer, and M. Hershenson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 61, 193 (1961).

Hershenson, M.

D. Raab, E. Fehrer, and M. Hershenson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 61, 193 (1961).

Hillman, B.

B. Hillman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 422 (1958) and E. Baumgardt and B. Hillman, ibid. 51, 340 (1961) are the most recent of many studies of foveal and peripheral reciprocity relations.

Katz, M. S.

M. S. Katz, "The Perceived Brightness of Light Flashes," Ph.D. thesis, University of Rochester (1959).

Kolers, P. A.

P. A. Kolers and B. S. Rosner, Am. J. Psychol. 73, 2 (1960).

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957), pp. 291–293.

McDougall, W.

W. McDougall, Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 151 (1904). McDougall's "indirect method" could be used only to determine the "action time" of a flash, i.e., that duration of stimulus which yields maximal brightness.

Raab, D.

D. Raab and E. Fehrer, J. Exptl. Psychol. (to be published).

D. Raab, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 298 (1962).

D. Raab, E. Fehrer, and M. Hershenson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 61, 193 (1961).

D. Raab, Science 135, 42 (1962).

Rosner, B. S.

P. A. Kolers and B. S. Rosner, Am. J. Psychol. 73, 2 (1960).

Schlosberg, H.

R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, Inc., New York, 1954), revised ed., pp. 197–198.

Stainton, W. H.

W. H. Stainton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 26 (1928).

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens, Am. J. Psychol. 69, 1 (1956).

Woodworth, R. S.

R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, Inc., New York, 1954), revised ed., pp. 197–198.

Other

B. Hillman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 422 (1958) and E. Baumgardt and B. Hillman, ibid. 51, 340 (1961) are the most recent of many studies of foveal and peripheral reciprocity relations.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour and Vision (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957), pp. 291–293.

M. Alpern, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 648 (1953).

W. McDougall, Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 151 (1904). McDougall's "indirect method" could be used only to determine the "action time" of a flash, i.e., that duration of stimulus which yields maximal brightness.

D. Raab, E. Fehrer, and M. Hershenson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 61, 193 (1961).

D. Raab and E. Fehrer, J. Exptl. Psychol. (to be published).

D. Raab, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 298 (1962).

S. S. Stevens, Am. J. Psychol. 69, 1 (1956).

D. Raab, Science 135, 42 (1962).

M. S. Katz, "The Perceived Brightness of Light Flashes," Ph.D. thesis, University of Rochester (1959).

M. A. Bills, Psychol. Monogr. 28, No. 5 (1920).

W. H. Stainton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 26 (1928).

R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), p. 741.

P. A. Kolers and B. S. Rosner, Am. J. Psychol. 73, 2 (1960).

Let Δt= the onset asynchrony between the standard and variable flashes. Let d = the duration of the variable flash. The three conditions are then defined as follows: 1. Δt=0; 2. Δt=200-d; 3. Δt=100-½d.

R. S. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, Inc., New York, 1954), revised ed., pp. 197–198.

See reference 13, p. 742.

Our equipment cannot generate luminances greater than 101 dB; below 73 dB, the test flash appeared too faint for positional judgments to be made.

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