Abstract

The blue sky was observed near 90° from the sun, in the vertical plane through the direction of the sun, with the sun above and just below the horizon. The observations were made with six filters ranging from 3250 to 9400 Å. For a normal clear sky at the McDonald Observatory with the sun 11°.5 above the horizon, 75% polarization was found at 5500 Å. The agreement of the Rayleigh—Chandrasekhar theory with the observations is good. The difference of the above 75% with 100% polarization appears to be due to multiple scattering (6%), molecular anisotropy (6%), and reflection by the ground (5%), while a residual 8% is presumably due to aerosols. At the McDonald Observatory, the polarization of the daytime sky has a maximum near 5500 Å, with a decrease toward longer as well as toward shorter wavelengths. The decline in the ultraviolet is caused by multiple scattering, while in the infrared it is mostly due to ground reflection, which is especially strong when green plants are present.

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  1. Z. Sekera, Advances in Geophysics, edited by H. E. Landsberg, (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1956) Vol. 3.
  2. Z. Sekera, Handbuch der Physik, edited by S. Flügge, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 48, Pt. II.
  3. G. V. Rosenberg, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 71, 173 (1960); transl. Sov. Phys. Usp. 3, 346 (1960).
  4. N. N. Kalitin, Meteor. Z. 43, 132 (1926).
  5. H. C. van de Hulst, The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, edited by G. P. Kuiper (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952), Chap. III.
  6. T. Gehrels and T. M. Teska, Publs. Astron. Soc. Pacific 72, 115 (1960).
  7. T. Gehrels, Astron. J. 65, 466 (1960).
  8. T. Gehrels, Astron. J. 65, 470 (1960).
  9. T. Gehrels and R. E. Samuelson, Astrophys. J. 134, 1022 (1961).
  10. T. Gehrels, Astron. J. (to be published).
  11. V. G. Fesenkov, Astron. Zhur. 37, 785 (1960); transl. Sov. AJ 4, 741 (1961).
  12. J. Stebbins and G. E. Kron, Astrophys. J. 126, 266 (1957).
  13. See reference 2, p. 324.
  14. R. Robley, Ann. Géophys. 8, 1 (1952).
  15. See reference 1, Fig. 22.
  16. See reference 1, Fig. 3.
  17. J. Strong, Concepts of Classical Optics (W. H. Freeman and Company, Inc., San Francisco and London, 1958), p. 108.
  18. J. V. Dave, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 43A, 336 (1956).
  19. E. V. Ashburn and R. G. Weldon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 583 (1956).
  20. S. Chandrasekhar and D. D. Elbert, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 44, 643 (1954).
  21. K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).
  22. Rayleigh (J. W. Strutt), Phil. Mag. 35, 373 (1918); also Scientific Papers (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1920), Vol. 6, p. 540.
  23. G. de Vaucouleurs, Ann. Phys. 6, 213 (1951).
  24. A. A. Pulido, dissertation, Chemistry Department, Indiana University (1961).
  25. See reference 1, Fig. 1.
  26. See reference 19, Table 1.
  27. D. Deirmendjian, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 371 (1960) and references given.
  28. Handbook of Geophysics, rev. ed. (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1960), Chap. 14; the original Krinov reference is at Laboratoriia Aerometodov, Akad. Nauk SSSR, (1947).
  29. J. B. Irwin (personal communication).
  30. The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, rev. ed. edited by G. P. Kuiper (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952), Fig. 88.
  31. D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 478 (1951).
  32. J. Lenoble and Z. Sekera, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 47, 372 (1961).

Ashburn, E. V.

E. V. Ashburn and R. G. Weldon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 583 (1956).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar and D. D. Elbert, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 44, 643 (1954).

Coulson, K. L.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).

Dave, J. V.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).

J. V. Dave, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 43A, 336 (1956).

de Vaucouleurs, G.

G. de Vaucouleurs, Ann. Phys. 6, 213 (1951).

Deirmendjian, D.

D. Deirmendjian, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 371 (1960) and references given.

Elbert, D. D.

S. Chandrasekhar and D. D. Elbert, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 44, 643 (1954).

Fesenkov, V. G.

V. G. Fesenkov, Astron. Zhur. 37, 785 (1960); transl. Sov. AJ 4, 741 (1961).

Gehrels, T.

T. Gehrels and T. M. Teska, Publs. Astron. Soc. Pacific 72, 115 (1960).

T. Gehrels, Astron. J. (to be published).

T. Gehrels, Astron. J. 65, 466 (1960).

T. Gehrels, Astron. J. 65, 470 (1960).

T. Gehrels and R. E. Samuelson, Astrophys. J. 134, 1022 (1961).

Irwin, J. B.

J. B. Irwin (personal communication).

Kalitin, N. N.

N. N. Kalitin, Meteor. Z. 43, 132 (1926).

Kron, G. E.

J. Stebbins and G. E. Kron, Astrophys. J. 126, 266 (1957).

Kuiper, G. P.

The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, rev. ed. edited by G. P. Kuiper (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952), Fig. 88.

Lenoble, J.

J. Lenoble and Z. Sekera, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 47, 372 (1961).

Lock, C.

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 478 (1951).

Packer, D. M.

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 478 (1951).

Pulido, A. A.

A. A. Pulido, dissertation, Chemistry Department, Indiana University (1961).

Robley, R.

R. Robley, Ann. Géophys. 8, 1 (1952).

Rosenberg, G. V.

G. V. Rosenberg, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 71, 173 (1960); transl. Sov. Phys. Usp. 3, 346 (1960).

Samuelson, R. E.

T. Gehrels and R. E. Samuelson, Astrophys. J. 134, 1022 (1961).

Sekera, Z.

Z. Sekera, Advances in Geophysics, edited by H. E. Landsberg, (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1956) Vol. 3.

Z. Sekera, Handbuch der Physik, edited by S. Flügge, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 48, Pt. II.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).

J. Lenoble and Z. Sekera, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 47, 372 (1961).

Stebbins, J.

J. Stebbins and G. E. Kron, Astrophys. J. 126, 266 (1957).

Strong, J.

J. Strong, Concepts of Classical Optics (W. H. Freeman and Company, Inc., San Francisco and London, 1958), p. 108.

Teska, T. M.

T. Gehrels and T. M. Teska, Publs. Astron. Soc. Pacific 72, 115 (1960).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, edited by G. P. Kuiper (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952), Chap. III.

Weldon, R. G.

E. V. Ashburn and R. G. Weldon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 583 (1956).

Other

Z. Sekera, Advances in Geophysics, edited by H. E. Landsberg, (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1956) Vol. 3.

Z. Sekera, Handbuch der Physik, edited by S. Flügge, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 48, Pt. II.

G. V. Rosenberg, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 71, 173 (1960); transl. Sov. Phys. Usp. 3, 346 (1960).

N. N. Kalitin, Meteor. Z. 43, 132 (1926).

H. C. van de Hulst, The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, edited by G. P. Kuiper (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952), Chap. III.

T. Gehrels and T. M. Teska, Publs. Astron. Soc. Pacific 72, 115 (1960).

T. Gehrels, Astron. J. 65, 466 (1960).

T. Gehrels, Astron. J. 65, 470 (1960).

T. Gehrels and R. E. Samuelson, Astrophys. J. 134, 1022 (1961).

T. Gehrels, Astron. J. (to be published).

V. G. Fesenkov, Astron. Zhur. 37, 785 (1960); transl. Sov. AJ 4, 741 (1961).

J. Stebbins and G. E. Kron, Astrophys. J. 126, 266 (1957).

See reference 2, p. 324.

R. Robley, Ann. Géophys. 8, 1 (1952).

See reference 1, Fig. 22.

See reference 1, Fig. 3.

J. Strong, Concepts of Classical Optics (W. H. Freeman and Company, Inc., San Francisco and London, 1958), p. 108.

J. V. Dave, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 43A, 336 (1956).

E. V. Ashburn and R. G. Weldon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 583 (1956).

S. Chandrasekhar and D. D. Elbert, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 44, 643 (1954).

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).

Rayleigh (J. W. Strutt), Phil. Mag. 35, 373 (1918); also Scientific Papers (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1920), Vol. 6, p. 540.

G. de Vaucouleurs, Ann. Phys. 6, 213 (1951).

A. A. Pulido, dissertation, Chemistry Department, Indiana University (1961).

See reference 1, Fig. 1.

See reference 19, Table 1.

D. Deirmendjian, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 371 (1960) and references given.

Handbook of Geophysics, rev. ed. (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1960), Chap. 14; the original Krinov reference is at Laboratoriia Aerometodov, Akad. Nauk SSSR, (1947).

J. B. Irwin (personal communication).

The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, rev. ed. edited by G. P. Kuiper (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952), Fig. 88.

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 478 (1951).

J. Lenoble and Z. Sekera, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 47, 372 (1961).

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