Abstract

The value of a carbon arc with properly chosen graphite electrodes and operating conditions as a reproducible high-temperature source of radiation has been recognized for a long time. Many studies both in this country and abroad have shown that the crater of the positive electrode has a brightness temperature at wavelengths near 6500 Å which falls very close to 3800°K, with a deviation of probably less than ±20°K. However, a number of scattered observations have shown small effects of operating conditions such as current, angular arrangement of electrodes, and size and composition of electrodes. New studies of these variables, including measurements of spectral and total radiance, have clearly defined operating conditions under which the crater radiates like a blackbody at 3800°K over the entire wavelength range 3000°–42 000 Å except for molecular radiation at specific wavelengths.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. G. MacPherson, “The Carbon Arc as a Radiation Standard,” Temperature—Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941), pp. 1141–1149; for a later draft of this same material see also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 189 (1940).
  2. N. K. Chaney, V. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 107 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Electrodes of the types and purity recommended by MacPherson are available from National Carbon Company, Division of Union Carbide Corporation, as “National” Grade AGKSP Graphite and “National” Grade L113SP Carbon Electrodes. (“National” is a registered trademark of Union Carbide Corporation.)
  4. W. Finkelnburg, The High Current Carbon Arc (Department of Commerce Publication PB-81644, FIAT Final Report 1052, 1947), pp. 39, 40; also W. Finkelnburg, Hochstromkohlebogen (Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg, 1948), pp. 61–63.
  5. W. Göing, Z. Physik 131, 603 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Euler, Sitzber. Heidelberg. Akad. Wiss. Math. naturw. Kl. Abhandl. 4, 418 (1956/57).
  7. J. Euler, Ann. Physik 11, 203 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Krygsman, Physica 5, 918 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 879 (1952).
  10. E. F. Worden, University of California Radiation Lab. Rept. No. 8509 (1958). Strictly speaking, Worden used a 1/4-in. diameter spectroscopic graphite anode but employed a 5.8 mm diameter cored microprojector cathode. The cored cathode is known to decrease the plasma temperature but would not be expected to reduce appreciably the temperature of the anode crater face.
  11. J. Euler, Ann. Physik 14, 145 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Euler, Ann. Physik 18, 345 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Euler and R. Ludwig, Arbeitsmethoden der optischen Pyrometrie (Verlag Braun, Karlsruhe, 1960). We are indebted to Euler for proof sheets from this publication.
  14. M. T. Jones, R. J. Zavesky, and W. W. Lozier, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 45, 10 (1945).
  15. Manufactured by Strong Electric Corporation, Toledo, Ohio.
  16. Manufactured by Mole-Richardson Company, Hollywood, California. Subsequent to the experimental work reported in this paper, the Mole-Richardson Company has manufactured a commercial unit, designated Pyrometric Molarc Lamp Type No. 2371 and Power Supply Type No. 2381, designed to operate with the carbons under the conditions described in this paper.
  17. J. C. DeVos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. J. Corruccini, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 43, 133 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  19. See reference 11, p. 164.
  20. F. S. Johnson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 103 (1956).
  21. W. W. Lozier, “Development of Graphite and Graphite-Base Multicomponent Materials for High Temperature Service,” (1959), pp. 62–74.
  22. M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1605 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  23. The negative electrode is usually positioned transversely and axially to maintain the crater face at right angles to the axis of the positive electrode.

1958 (1)

M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1605 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1956 (2)

F. S. Johnson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 103 (1956).

J. Euler, Ann. Physik 18, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1954 (2)

J. Euler, Ann. Physik 14, 145 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. C. DeVos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

J. Euler, Ann. Physik 11, 203 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (2)

W. Göing, Z. Physik 131, 603 (1952).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 879 (1952).

1949 (1)

R. J. Corruccini, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 43, 133 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

M. T. Jones, R. J. Zavesky, and W. W. Lozier, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 45, 10 (1945).

1938 (1)

C. Krygsman, Physica 5, 918 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

N. K. Chaney, V. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 107 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, N. K.

N. K. Chaney, V. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 107 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Corruccini, R. J.

R. J. Corruccini, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 43, 133 (1949).
[CrossRef]

DeVos, J. C.

J. C. DeVos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Euler,

J. Euler and R. Ludwig, Arbeitsmethoden der optischen Pyrometrie (Verlag Braun, Karlsruhe, 1960). We are indebted to Euler for proof sheets from this publication.

Euler, J.

J. Euler, Sitzber. Heidelberg. Akad. Wiss. Math. naturw. Kl. Abhandl. 4, 418 (1956/57).

J. Euler, Ann. Physik 18, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Euler, Ann. Physik 14, 145 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Euler, Ann. Physik 11, 203 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Euler and R. Ludwig, Arbeitsmethoden der optischen Pyrometrie (Verlag Braun, Karlsruhe, 1960). We are indebted to Euler for proof sheets from this publication.

Finkelnburg, W.

W. Finkelnburg, The High Current Carbon Arc (Department of Commerce Publication PB-81644, FIAT Final Report 1052, 1947), pp. 39, 40; also W. Finkelnburg, Hochstromkohlebogen (Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg, 1948), pp. 61–63.

Glass, S. W.

N. K. Chaney, V. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 107 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Göing, W.

W. Göing, Z. Physik 131, 603 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Hamister, V. C.

N. K. Chaney, V. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 107 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. S.

F. S. Johnson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 103 (1956).

Jones, M. T.

M. T. Jones, R. J. Zavesky, and W. W. Lozier, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 45, 10 (1945).

Krygsman, C.

C. Krygsman, Physica 5, 918 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Lock, C.

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 879 (1952).

Lozier, W. W.

M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1605 (1958).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Jones, R. J. Zavesky, and W. W. Lozier, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 45, 10 (1945).

W. W. Lozier, “Development of Graphite and Graphite-Base Multicomponent Materials for High Temperature Service,” (1959), pp. 62–74.

Ludwig, R.

J. Euler and R. Ludwig, Arbeitsmethoden der optischen Pyrometrie (Verlag Braun, Karlsruhe, 1960). We are indebted to Euler for proof sheets from this publication.

MacPherson, H. G.

H. G. MacPherson, “The Carbon Arc as a Radiation Standard,” Temperature—Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941), pp. 1141–1149; for a later draft of this same material see also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 189 (1940).

Null, M. R.

M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1605 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Packer, D. M.

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 879 (1952).

Worden, E. F.

E. F. Worden, University of California Radiation Lab. Rept. No. 8509 (1958). Strictly speaking, Worden used a 1/4-in. diameter spectroscopic graphite anode but employed a 5.8 mm diameter cored microprojector cathode. The cored cathode is known to decrease the plasma temperature but would not be expected to reduce appreciably the temperature of the anode crater face.

Zavesky, R. J.

M. T. Jones, R. J. Zavesky, and W. W. Lozier, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 45, 10 (1945).

Ann. Physik (3)

J. Euler, Ann. Physik 11, 203 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Euler, Ann. Physik 14, 145 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Euler, Ann. Physik 18, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1605 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

F. S. Johnson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 103 (1956).

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 879 (1952).

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (1)

R. J. Corruccini, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 43, 133 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. (1)

M. T. Jones, R. J. Zavesky, and W. W. Lozier, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 45, 10 (1945).

Physica (2)

J. C. DeVos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).
[CrossRef]

C. Krygsman, Physica 5, 918 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Sitzber. Heidelberg. Akad. Wiss. Math. naturw. Kl. Abhandl. (1)

J. Euler, Sitzber. Heidelberg. Akad. Wiss. Math. naturw. Kl. Abhandl. 4, 418 (1956/57).

Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

N. K. Chaney, V. C. Hamister, and S. W. Glass, Trans. Am. Electrochem. Soc. 67, 107 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Z. Physik (1)

W. Göing, Z. Physik 131, 603 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

H. G. MacPherson, “The Carbon Arc as a Radiation Standard,” Temperature—Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941), pp. 1141–1149; for a later draft of this same material see also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 189 (1940).

Electrodes of the types and purity recommended by MacPherson are available from National Carbon Company, Division of Union Carbide Corporation, as “National” Grade AGKSP Graphite and “National” Grade L113SP Carbon Electrodes. (“National” is a registered trademark of Union Carbide Corporation.)

W. Finkelnburg, The High Current Carbon Arc (Department of Commerce Publication PB-81644, FIAT Final Report 1052, 1947), pp. 39, 40; also W. Finkelnburg, Hochstromkohlebogen (Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg, 1948), pp. 61–63.

E. F. Worden, University of California Radiation Lab. Rept. No. 8509 (1958). Strictly speaking, Worden used a 1/4-in. diameter spectroscopic graphite anode but employed a 5.8 mm diameter cored microprojector cathode. The cored cathode is known to decrease the plasma temperature but would not be expected to reduce appreciably the temperature of the anode crater face.

See reference 11, p. 164.

Manufactured by Strong Electric Corporation, Toledo, Ohio.

Manufactured by Mole-Richardson Company, Hollywood, California. Subsequent to the experimental work reported in this paper, the Mole-Richardson Company has manufactured a commercial unit, designated Pyrometric Molarc Lamp Type No. 2371 and Power Supply Type No. 2381, designed to operate with the carbons under the conditions described in this paper.

J. Euler and R. Ludwig, Arbeitsmethoden der optischen Pyrometrie (Verlag Braun, Karlsruhe, 1960). We are indebted to Euler for proof sheets from this publication.

W. W. Lozier, “Development of Graphite and Graphite-Base Multicomponent Materials for High Temperature Service,” (1959), pp. 62–74.

The negative electrode is usually positioned transversely and axially to maintain the crater face at right angles to the axis of the positive electrode.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Luminance at center of crater vs arc current for graphite positive electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Luminance at center of crater vs arc current for carbon positive electrodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radial distribution of luminance across crater of graphite positive electrodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radial distribution of luminance across crater of carbon positive electrodes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photographs of positive electrode tips during arc operation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral distribution of radiance of crater of pyrometric arc.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Operating data for pyrometric arc trims.

Tables Icon

Table II Maximum integrated radiance of positive crater of pyrometric arcs.a

Tables Icon

Table III Molecular radiation bands in the pyrometric arc spectrum.