Abstract

It is shown that a visual method of precise focusing, due to Simon, can be adapted to photoelectric setting with comparable precision. A further gain in sensitivity is found with partially coherent illumination. The proposed design of a precise-focusing microscope is given.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Simon, Rev. opt. 40, 213 (1961).
  2. A. Maréchal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 396 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. H. Steel, Optica Acta 3, 49 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. H. Steel in Conference on Communication and Information Theory of Modern Optics (General Electric Company, Syracuse, New York, 1960).
  5. M. Françon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 528 (1957).
    [CrossRef]

1961 (2)

J. Simon, Rev. opt. 40, 213 (1961).

A. Maréchal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 396 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

1956 (1)

W. H. Steel, Optica Acta 3, 49 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Françon, M.

Maréchal, A.

Simon, J.

J. Simon, Rev. opt. 40, 213 (1961).

Steel, W. H.

W. H. Steel, Optica Acta 3, 49 (1956).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Steel in Conference on Communication and Information Theory of Modern Optics (General Electric Company, Syracuse, New York, 1960).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Optica Acta (1)

W. H. Steel, Optica Acta 3, 49 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Rev. opt. (1)

J. Simon, Rev. opt. 40, 213 (1961).

Other (1)

W. H. Steel in Conference on Communication and Information Theory of Modern Optics (General Electric Company, Syracuse, New York, 1960).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Curves showing the calculated values of sensitivity S and the corresponding values of phase aberration ϕ and spatial frequency ω for different relative apertures σ of the illuminating and imaging systems; the illumination is effectively incoherent for σ>1.3. Experimentally obtained values are included.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Equipment for finding experimentally the best sensitivity. The focus was varied by moving the second imaging lens. Details of the wide-field polariscope are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Proposed precision-focusing microscope for locating a reflecting surface. If the lamp and photomultiplier are interchanged, it will focus also on a separate object such as a luminous slit.

Equations (4)

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Δ = 1 2 α 2 δ x ,
S ( ϕ , ω ) = - d T / d ϕ .
T ( ϕ , 2 ω ) ( 2 / π ) [ arc cos ω - ω ( 1 - ω 2 ) 1 2 ] Λ 1 [ 4 ω ( 1 - ω ) ϕ ] ,
S ( ϕ , ω , σ ) = - d [ t ( - ω , ω ) / t ( ω , ω ) ] / d ϕ .