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  1. A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, Jr., and D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).
  2. The transition involved is the 2s2 → 2p4 (Paschen notation).
  3. A. G. Fox and T. Li, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).
  4. A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).
  5. A slight crystallization of our dielectric reflectance coatings during bake-out may have resulted in an anisotropic reflectance for different polarizations of incident radiation. It is possible that other plates may show isotropic behavior.
  6. For parallel polarization the signal-to-noise ratio was about 100:1. The photomultiplier used was a 7102 which has an S1 photocathode.
  7. G. Birnbaum, Proceedings of the 2nd Quantum Electronics Conference, Berkeley, California, 1961 (to be published).
  8. W. R. Bennett, Jr. has also observed the presence of such nonlinear frequency pulling (private communication).
  9. For an estimate of the size of this effect let us ignore the coupling between various modes by the nonlinearities of the amplifying medium and furthermore consider the case where the maser gain is kept close to the oscillation threshold (resulting in a small value of the electric-field amplitude). For a Gaussian line shape given by exp { - [(ν - νc) / Δνd]2} it can be shown that [Equation] where X′-iX″ is the electric susceptibility. A linear pulling dependence results only for ν-νc≪Δνd.

Bennett, Jr., W. R.

W. R. Bennett, Jr. has also observed the presence of such nonlinear frequency pulling (private communication).

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, Jr., and D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).

Birnbaum, G.

G. Birnbaum, Proceedings of the 2nd Quantum Electronics Conference, Berkeley, California, 1961 (to be published).

Forrester, A. T.

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).

Fox, A. G.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

Gudmundsen, R. A.

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).

Herriott, D. R.

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, Jr., and D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).

Javan, A.

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, Jr., and D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).

Johnson, P. O.

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).

Li, T.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

Other (9)

A. Javan, W. R. Bennett, Jr., and D. R. Herriott, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 106 (1961).

The transition involved is the 2s2 → 2p4 (Paschen notation).

A. G. Fox and T. Li, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 453 (1961).

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, Phys. Rev. 99, 1691 (1955).

A slight crystallization of our dielectric reflectance coatings during bake-out may have resulted in an anisotropic reflectance for different polarizations of incident radiation. It is possible that other plates may show isotropic behavior.

For parallel polarization the signal-to-noise ratio was about 100:1. The photomultiplier used was a 7102 which has an S1 photocathode.

G. Birnbaum, Proceedings of the 2nd Quantum Electronics Conference, Berkeley, California, 1961 (to be published).

W. R. Bennett, Jr. has also observed the presence of such nonlinear frequency pulling (private communication).

For an estimate of the size of this effect let us ignore the coupling between various modes by the nonlinearities of the amplifying medium and furthermore consider the case where the maser gain is kept close to the oscillation threshold (resulting in a small value of the electric-field amplitude). For a Gaussian line shape given by exp { - [(ν - νc) / Δνd]2} it can be shown that [Equation] where X′-iX″ is the electric susceptibility. A linear pulling dependence results only for ν-νc≪Δνd.

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