Abstract

The paper presents new measurements of the optical constants and of the reflectance and transmittance of evaporated aluminum films produced from the purest grade of aluminum with extremely fast evaporation at about 10−5 mm Hg. The optical constants were determined by Drude’s polarimetric method from opaque films and by reflectance, transmittance, and true thickness measurements of semitransparent films. The following results were obtained.

λ (mμ)220260300340380436492546578650
n0.140.190.250.310.370.470.640.820.931.30
k2.352.853.333.804.254.845.505.996.337.11
R%91.892.092.192.392.692.692.291.691.590.7

For extremely fast evaporated films the optical constants were found to remain unchanged down to film thicknesses of less than 100 A. Data are given on the reflectance and transmittance of semitransparent aluminum films on glass and fused quartz as a function of wavelength from 220 mμ to 650 mμ.

© 1961 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Strong, Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. O’Bryan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 122 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. Walkenhorst, Z. tech Physik 22, 14 (1941).
  4. G. Hass, Optik 1, 2 (1946).
  5. M. F. Crawford, W. M. Gray, A. L. Schwawlow, and F. M. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 888 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. G. Schulz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 357 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. G. Schulz and F. R. Tangherlini, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 362 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 945 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956); ibid. 47, 1070 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry of Films and Surfaces (Clarenden Press, Oxford, England, 1948).
  11. L. N. Hadley and D. M. Dennison, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 451 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  12. The authors are indebted to L. N. Hadley and his co-workers for the preparation of the graphs used in this paper for the determination of n and k of semitransparent aluminum films.
  13. P. Drude, Wiedem. Ann. 64, 159 (1898).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. Holland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 376 (1953).
    [Crossref]

1960 (1)

1956 (1)

1955 (1)

1954 (2)

1953 (1)

1949 (1)

1947 (1)

1946 (1)

G. Hass, Optik 1, 2 (1946).

1941 (1)

W. Walkenhorst, Z. tech Physik 22, 14 (1941).

1936 (2)

1898 (1)

P. Drude, Wiedem. Ann. 64, 159 (1898).
[Crossref]

Berning, P. H.

Crawford, M. F.

Dennison, D. M.

Drude, P.

P. Drude, Wiedem. Ann. 64, 159 (1898).
[Crossref]

Gray, W. M.

Hadley, L. N.

Hass, G.

Holland, L.

Hunter, W. R.

Kelly, F. M.

Madden, R. P.

O’Bryan, H.

Schulz, L. G.

Schwawlow, A. L.

Strong, J.

J. Strong, Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
[Crossref]

Tangherlini, F. R.

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry of Films and Surfaces (Clarenden Press, Oxford, England, 1948).

Tousey, R.

Walkenhorst, W.

W. Walkenhorst, Z. tech Physik 22, 14 (1941).

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. Strong, Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

Optik (1)

G. Hass, Optik 1, 2 (1946).

Wiedem. Ann. (1)

P. Drude, Wiedem. Ann. 64, 159 (1898).
[Crossref]

Z. tech Physik (1)

W. Walkenhorst, Z. tech Physik 22, 14 (1941).

Other (2)

The authors are indebted to L. N. Hadley and his co-workers for the preparation of the graphs used in this paper for the determination of n and k of semitransparent aluminum films.

S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry of Films and Surfaces (Clarenden Press, Oxford, England, 1948).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effect of pressure and speed of evaporation on the reflectance of 600 to 700-A thick Al films from 220 to 600 mμ.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I The optical constants and the calculated and measured reflectance of evaporated aluminum produced under optimum evaporation conditions from 200 to 650 mμ.

Tables Icon

Table II The effect of substrate temperature during the evaporation on the reflectance of about 700-A thick Al films deposited at 1–2 × 10−5 mm Hg at various deposition rates.

Tables Icon

Table III The effect of vapor incidence on the reflectance of evaporated aluminum films of two different thicknesses.

Tables Icon

Table IV Calculated reflectance and transmittance of Al films evaporated under optimum conditions onto transparent substrates of n = 1.5 for various wavelengths as a function of film thickness. (Calculated values agree with directly measured ones for film thicknesses >100 A; back surface antireflected.)