Abstract

A new type of Fresnel zone plate has been constructed which can focus ultraviolet radiation of any wavelength down to the soft x-ray region. It consists of a set of thin circular gold bands made self supporting by radial struts, leaving the transparent zones empty. Experimental tests at 6700, 4358, and 2537 A showed that the theoretical minimum angular resolution obeys the Rayleigh criterion, sinθ<sub>min</sub> = 1.22λ/<i>D</i>. The diameter of the zone plate is <i>D</i>=0.26 cm and contains 19 opaque zones, the narrowest of which measured about 20 µ across. The zone plate was better than the optimum pinhole in resolution by a factor of about 6 and in speed by a factor of 40. The zone plate produced pictures that compared favorably with those made with a lens of similar focal length and aperture. The lens was about 20 times faster than the zone plate at 4358 A, but at 1000 A the zone plate would have been far faster than the lens. Focusing tests are contemplated at 1000 A and at 100 A where lenses and mirrors, the conventional image-forming devices, may fail. The angular resolution at 2537 A was close to the theoretical value of 1.2×10<sup>−4</sup> rad and held over a field of at least 1.75×10<sup>−2</sup> rad, which is 2.0 times the angle subtended by the sun’s disk at the earth. A zone plate telescope, operating in the soft x-ray or extreme ultraviolet region, far above the earth’s atmosphere in an orbiting satellite, now seems possible.

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  1. Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography, Cambridge, England, August 16–21, 1956. The proceedings of this conference were published in the following work: V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).
  2. Second International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15–17, 1959.
  3. R. Jastrow, J. Geophys. Research 64, 1647 (1959).
  4. L. R. Koller, Ultraviolet Radiation (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952), Chap. 5, p. 146.
  5. F. L. Whipple and R. J. Davis, Astron. J. 65, 285 (1960).
  6. W. C. Walker, O. P. Rustgi, and G. L. Weissler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 471 (1959).
  7. G. Hass and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 593 (1959).
  8. G. R. Sabine, Phys. Rev. 55, 1064 (1939).
  9. P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586, (1960).
  10. L. M. Rieser, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 987 (1957).
  11. A. H. Compton and S. K. Allison, X-Rays in Theory and Experiment (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1935), 2nd ed., Chap. IV, p. 305 et seq.
  12. P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948).
  13. P. Kirkpatrick and H. H. Pattee, Jr., "X-ray microscopy," Handbuch der Physik edited by S. Flugge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. XXX.
  14. V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).
  15. A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 756 (1952).
  16. D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
  17. O. E. Myers, Jr., Am. J. Phys. 19, 359 (1951).
  18. J. Strong, Concepts of Classical Optics (W. H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco, California, 1958).
  19. B. L. Henke, Proceedings Seventh Annual Conference on Industrial Applications of X-Ray Analysis, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, 1958.
  20. C. DeJager, Ann. Geophys. II, 1 (1955).
  21. J. E. Mack and M. J. Martin, The Photographic Process (McGraw—Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1939).
  22. D. S. Kirby, Pubis. Astron. Soc. Pacific 71, No. 334 (1959).
  23. R. Giacconi and B. Rossi, J. Geophys. Research 65, 773 (1960).

Allison, S. K.

A. H. Compton and S. K. Allison, X-Rays in Theory and Experiment (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1935), 2nd ed., Chap. IV, p. 305 et seq.

Baez, A. V.

P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948).

A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 756 (1952).

Berning, P. H.

P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586, (1960).

Compton, A. H.

A. H. Compton and S. K. Allison, X-Rays in Theory and Experiment (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1935), 2nd ed., Chap. IV, p. 305 et seq.

Cosslett, V. E.

V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).

Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography, Cambridge, England, August 16–21, 1956. The proceedings of this conference were published in the following work: V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).

Davis, R. J.

F. L. Whipple and R. J. Davis, Astron. J. 65, 285 (1960).

DeJager, C.

C. DeJager, Ann. Geophys. II, 1 (1955).

Engstrom, A.

V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).

Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography, Cambridge, England, August 16–21, 1956. The proceedings of this conference were published in the following work: V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi and B. Rossi, J. Geophys. Research 65, 773 (1960).

Hass, G.

P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586, (1960).

G. Hass and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 593 (1959).

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, Proceedings Seventh Annual Conference on Industrial Applications of X-Ray Analysis, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, 1958.

Jastrow, R.

R. Jastrow, J. Geophys. Research 64, 1647 (1959).

Kirby, D. S.

D. S. Kirby, Pubis. Astron. Soc. Pacific 71, No. 334 (1959).

Kirkpatrick, P.

P. Kirkpatrick and H. H. Pattee, Jr., "X-ray microscopy," Handbuch der Physik edited by S. Flugge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. XXX.

P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948).

Koller, L. R.

L. R. Koller, Ultraviolet Radiation (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952), Chap. 5, p. 146.

Mack, J. E.

J. E. Mack and M. J. Martin, The Photographic Process (McGraw—Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1939).

Madden, R. P.

P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586, (1960).

Martin, M. J.

J. E. Mack and M. J. Martin, The Photographic Process (McGraw—Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1939).

Myers, Jr., O. E.

O. E. Myers, Jr., Am. J. Phys. 19, 359 (1951).

Pattee, Jr., H. H.

V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).

P. Kirkpatrick and H. H. Pattee, Jr., "X-ray microscopy," Handbuch der Physik edited by S. Flugge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. XXX.

Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography, Cambridge, England, August 16–21, 1956. The proceedings of this conference were published in the following work: V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).

Rieser, Jr., L. M.

L. M. Rieser, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 987 (1957).

Rossi, B.

R. Giacconi and B. Rossi, J. Geophys. Research 65, 773 (1960).

Rustgi, O. P.

W. C. Walker, O. P. Rustgi, and G. L. Weissler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 471 (1959).

Sabine, G. R.

G. R. Sabine, Phys. Rev. 55, 1064 (1939).

Strong, J.

J. Strong, Concepts of Classical Optics (W. H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco, California, 1958).

Tousey, R.

G. Hass and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 593 (1959).

Walker, W. C.

W. C. Walker, O. P. Rustgi, and G. L. Weissler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 471 (1959).

Weissler, G. L.

W. C. Walker, O. P. Rustgi, and G. L. Weissler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 471 (1959).

Whipple, F. L.

F. L. Whipple and R. J. Davis, Astron. J. 65, 285 (1960).

Other (23)

Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography, Cambridge, England, August 16–21, 1956. The proceedings of this conference were published in the following work: V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).

Second International Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Stockholm, Sweden, June 15–17, 1959.

R. Jastrow, J. Geophys. Research 64, 1647 (1959).

L. R. Koller, Ultraviolet Radiation (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952), Chap. 5, p. 146.

F. L. Whipple and R. J. Davis, Astron. J. 65, 285 (1960).

W. C. Walker, O. P. Rustgi, and G. L. Weissler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 471 (1959).

G. Hass and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 593 (1959).

G. R. Sabine, Phys. Rev. 55, 1064 (1939).

P. H. Berning, G. Hass, and R. P. Madden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 586, (1960).

L. M. Rieser, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 987 (1957).

A. H. Compton and S. K. Allison, X-Rays in Theory and Experiment (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1935), 2nd ed., Chap. IV, p. 305 et seq.

P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948).

P. Kirkpatrick and H. H. Pattee, Jr., "X-ray microscopy," Handbuch der Physik edited by S. Flugge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957), Vol. XXX.

V. E. Cosslett, A. Engstrom, and H. H. Pattee, Jr., X-ray Microscopy and Microradiography (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1957).

A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 756 (1952).

D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).

O. E. Myers, Jr., Am. J. Phys. 19, 359 (1951).

J. Strong, Concepts of Classical Optics (W. H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco, California, 1958).

B. L. Henke, Proceedings Seventh Annual Conference on Industrial Applications of X-Ray Analysis, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, 1958.

C. DeJager, Ann. Geophys. II, 1 (1955).

J. E. Mack and M. J. Martin, The Photographic Process (McGraw—Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1939).

D. S. Kirby, Pubis. Astron. Soc. Pacific 71, No. 334 (1959).

R. Giacconi and B. Rossi, J. Geophys. Research 65, 773 (1960).

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