Abstract

The radiant energies per square centimeter of six capacitor discharge lamps, with and without reflectors, were measured by the heating effects they produce in a standard graphite cylinder exposed to the flash. Energies as high as 26 joules cm−2 for a single flash are reported. Irradiances were estimated from oscilloscope intensity-time data, and shown to be as high as 66 kw cm−2. This is at least an order of magnitude greater than the irradiances obtainable in solar and arc image furnaces. The usefulness of capacitor discharge lamps as rapid heat sources is discussed.

© 1961 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 848 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  2. See review by R. G. W. Norrish and B. A. Thrush, Quart. Rev. (London) 10, 149 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 303 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Eggert, Physik. Bl. 10, 549 (1954); J. Phys. Chem. 63, 11 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. S. Nelson and J. L. Lundberg, J. Phys. Chem. 63, 443 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. I. Christie and G. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A212, 390 (1952).
  7. S. Claesson and G. Wettermark, Arkiv Kemi 11, 561 (1957).
  8. T. H. Maiman, Nature 187, 493 (1960); see also P. A. Miles and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 740 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. J. Charlson, H. Harrison, and R. Hardwick, Rev. Sci. Instr. 31, 46 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Claesson and L. Lindquist, Arkiv Kemi 12, 1 (1958).
  11. K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 371(1934).
  12. M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 163 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Benveniste and N. K. Hiester, Mech. Eng. 78, 915 (1956).
  14. J. A. Anderson, Astrophys. J. 75, 394 (1932).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A200, 284 (1950).

1960 (3)

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 303 (1960).
[Crossref]

T. H. Maiman, Nature 187, 493 (1960); see also P. A. Miles and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 740 (1961).
[Crossref]

R. J. Charlson, H. Harrison, and R. Hardwick, Rev. Sci. Instr. 31, 46 (1960).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

L. S. Nelson and J. L. Lundberg, J. Phys. Chem. 63, 443 (1959).
[Crossref]

1958 (2)

M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 163 (1958).
[Crossref]

S. Claesson and L. Lindquist, Arkiv Kemi 12, 1 (1958).

1957 (1)

S. Claesson and G. Wettermark, Arkiv Kemi 11, 561 (1957).

1956 (2)

G. Benveniste and N. K. Hiester, Mech. Eng. 78, 915 (1956).

See review by R. G. W. Norrish and B. A. Thrush, Quart. Rev. (London) 10, 149 (1956).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

J. Eggert, Physik. Bl. 10, 549 (1954); J. Phys. Chem. 63, 11 (1959).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

M. I. Christie and G. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A212, 390 (1952).

1950 (1)

G. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A200, 284 (1950).

1941 (1)

P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 848 (1941).
[Crossref]

1934 (1)

K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 371(1934).

1932 (1)

J. A. Anderson, Astrophys. J. 75, 394 (1932).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. A.

J. A. Anderson, Astrophys. J. 75, 394 (1932).
[Crossref]

Benveniste, G.

G. Benveniste and N. K. Hiester, Mech. Eng. 78, 915 (1956).

Bond, W.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 303 (1960).
[Crossref]

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, H. Harrison, and R. Hardwick, Rev. Sci. Instr. 31, 46 (1960).
[Crossref]

Christie, M. I.

M. I. Christie and G. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A212, 390 (1952).

Claesson, S.

S. Claesson and L. Lindquist, Arkiv Kemi 12, 1 (1958).

S. Claesson and G. Wettermark, Arkiv Kemi 11, 561 (1957).

Collins, R. J.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 303 (1960).
[Crossref]

Edgerton, H. E.

P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 848 (1941).
[Crossref]

Eggert, J.

J. Eggert, Physik. Bl. 10, 549 (1954); J. Phys. Chem. 63, 11 (1959).
[Crossref]

Garrett, C. G. B.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 303 (1960).
[Crossref]

Hardwick, R.

R. J. Charlson, H. Harrison, and R. Hardwick, Rev. Sci. Instr. 31, 46 (1960).
[Crossref]

Harrison, H.

R. J. Charlson, H. Harrison, and R. Hardwick, Rev. Sci. Instr. 31, 46 (1960).
[Crossref]

Hiester, N. K.

G. Benveniste and N. K. Hiester, Mech. Eng. 78, 915 (1956).

Kaiser, W.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 303 (1960).
[Crossref]

Kelley, K. K.

K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 371(1934).

Lindquist, L.

S. Claesson and L. Lindquist, Arkiv Kemi 12, 1 (1958).

Lozier, W. W.

M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 163 (1958).
[Crossref]

Lundberg, J. L.

L. S. Nelson and J. L. Lundberg, J. Phys. Chem. 63, 443 (1959).
[Crossref]

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, Nature 187, 493 (1960); see also P. A. Miles and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 740 (1961).
[Crossref]

Murphy, P. M.

P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 848 (1941).
[Crossref]

Nelson, D. F.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 303 (1960).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. S.

L. S. Nelson and J. L. Lundberg, J. Phys. Chem. 63, 443 (1959).
[Crossref]

Norrish, R. G. W.

See review by R. G. W. Norrish and B. A. Thrush, Quart. Rev. (London) 10, 149 (1956).
[Crossref]

Null, M. R.

M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 163 (1958).
[Crossref]

Porter, G.

M. I. Christie and G. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A212, 390 (1952).

G. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A200, 284 (1950).

Schawlow, A. L.

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 303 (1960).
[Crossref]

Thrush, B. A.

See review by R. G. W. Norrish and B. A. Thrush, Quart. Rev. (London) 10, 149 (1956).
[Crossref]

Wettermark, G.

S. Claesson and G. Wettermark, Arkiv Kemi 11, 561 (1957).

Arkiv Kemi (2)

S. Claesson and G. Wettermark, Arkiv Kemi 11, 561 (1957).

S. Claesson and L. Lindquist, Arkiv Kemi 12, 1 (1958).

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. A. Anderson, Astrophys. J. 75, 394 (1932).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 848 (1941).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

L. S. Nelson and J. L. Lundberg, J. Phys. Chem. 63, 443 (1959).
[Crossref]

Mech. Eng. (1)

G. Benveniste and N. K. Hiester, Mech. Eng. 78, 915 (1956).

Nature (1)

T. H. Maiman, Nature 187, 493 (1960); see also P. A. Miles and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 740 (1961).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

R. J. Collins, D. F. Nelson, A. L. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. G. B. Garrett, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Letters 5, 303 (1960).
[Crossref]

Physik. Bl. (1)

J. Eggert, Physik. Bl. 10, 549 (1954); J. Phys. Chem. 63, 11 (1959).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (2)

M. I. Christie and G. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A212, 390 (1952).

G. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A200, 284 (1950).

Quart. Rev. (London) (1)

See review by R. G. W. Norrish and B. A. Thrush, Quart. Rev. (London) 10, 149 (1956).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (2)

R. J. Charlson, H. Harrison, and R. Hardwick, Rev. Sci. Instr. 31, 46 (1960).
[Crossref]

M. R. Null and W. W. Lozier, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 163 (1958).
[Crossref]

U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. (1)

K. K. Kelley, U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 371(1934).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Recorder trace of thermocouple voltage as a function of time. Inset shows extrapolation to zero time. For lamp 1 flashed at 178 joules with reflector, 3-μhenry capacitor bank.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiant energy per square centimeter for lamps 1 through 5 as a function of electrical input energy. ○—recorded with large cylinder, △—recorded with small cylinder, □—lamp flashed with rapid capacitor bank.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Instantaneous irradiances for lamp 1 flashed at 352.8 μf and 4 kv with reflector with 3-μhenry circuit inductance. Calculated from Eq. (3).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum instantaneous irradiances as a function of electrical input energy. All lamps have reflectors. Lower curves obtained with 3-μhenry capacitor bank.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Description of capacitor discharge lamps tested.

Equations (5)

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C p ( carbon ) = 2.673 + 2.617 × 10 - 3 T - 116 900 T - 2 cal ° K - 1 .
E = k A
E = k t = 0 t = t f V t d t
I t = k V t .
I t = E V t / t = 0 t = t f V t d t .