Abstract

An integrating sphere for determining spectral reflectance and transmittance as a function of angle of incidence and wavelength in the 0.33- to 2.5-µ region is described. Geometrical arrangement of sample, entrance port, and detector as well as directional characteristics of detector and sphere wall coating permit absolute or relative measurements to be made for a sample with an arbitrary reflection-distribution function.

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  1. The ending "ance" is used to denote the radiation characteristic of a surface system that may be composed of many layers or particles and may be characterized by its geometry such as a surface roughness. The ending "ivity" is reserved for the characteristic of a perfectly plane interface between media of different indices of refraction.
  2. H. J. McNicholas, Natl. Bur. Standards, J. Research 1, 29 (1928).
  3. C. v. Fragstein, Optik 12, 60 (1955).
  4. R. V. Dunkle, "Spectral reflectance measurements," in Surface Effects on Spacecraft Materials, edited by F. J. Clauss (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960).
  5. B. P. Kozyrev, and O. E. Vershinin, Optics and Spectroscopy 6, 345 (1959).
  6. A. H. Karrer, Bur. Standards, Sci. Papers 17, 203 (1922).
  7. A. H. Taylor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 51 (1935).
  8. F. Benford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 165 (1934).
  9. J. A. Jacquez and H. R. Kuppenheim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 460 (1955).
  10. A. C. Hardy and J. Pineo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 502 (1931).
  11. C. P. Tingwaldt, Optik 9, 323 (1952).
  12. A. S. Toporets, Optics and Spectroscopy 7, 471 (1959).
  13. P. Moon, The Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1936), pp. 254, 291.
  14. W. Budde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 217 (1960).
  15. P. A. Tellex, and J. P. Waldron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 19 (1955).
  16. G. Coolures, Master of Engineering thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1959.
  17. All equations are written for monochromatic energy. All therefore require integration over the monochromator slit function, but for convenience this integration is not shown explicitly.
  18. O. H. Olson, and D. A. Pontarelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 119 (1957).
  19. K. Forsterling, and V. Freedericksz, Ann. Physik 40, 201 (1913).
  20. J. T. Gier, R. V. Dunkle, and J. T. Bevans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 558 (1954).
  21. W. E. K. Middleton, and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 419 (1951).

12, Optik

C. v. Fragstein, Optik 12, 60 (1955).

Benford, F.

F. Benford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 165 (1934).

Bevans, J. T.

J. T. Gier, R. V. Dunkle, and J. T. Bevans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 558 (1954).

Budde, W.

W. Budde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 217 (1960).

Coolures, G.

G. Coolures, Master of Engineering thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1959.

Dunkle, R. V.

J. T. Gier, R. V. Dunkle, and J. T. Bevans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 558 (1954).

R. V. Dunkle, "Spectral reflectance measurements," in Surface Effects on Spacecraft Materials, edited by F. J. Clauss (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960).

Forsterling, K.

K. Forsterling, and V. Freedericksz, Ann. Physik 40, 201 (1913).

Fragstein, C. v.

C. v. Fragstein, Optik 12, 60 (1955).

Freedericksz, V.

K. Forsterling, and V. Freedericksz, Ann. Physik 40, 201 (1913).

Gier, J. T.

J. T. Gier, R. V. Dunkle, and J. T. Bevans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 558 (1954).

Hardy, A. C.

A. C. Hardy and J. Pineo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 502 (1931).

Jacquez, J. A.

J. A. Jacquez and H. R. Kuppenheim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 460 (1955).

Karrer, A. H.

A. H. Karrer, Bur. Standards, Sci. Papers 17, 203 (1922).

Kozyrev, B. P.

B. P. Kozyrev, and O. E. Vershinin, Optics and Spectroscopy 6, 345 (1959).

Kuppenheim, H. R.

J. A. Jacquez and H. R. Kuppenheim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 460 (1955).

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, Natl. Bur. Standards, J. Research 1, 29 (1928).

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 419 (1951).

Moon, P.

P. Moon, The Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1936), pp. 254, 291.

Olson, O. H.

O. H. Olson, and D. A. Pontarelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 119 (1957).

Pineo, J.

A. C. Hardy and J. Pineo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 502 (1931).

Pontarelli, D. A.

O. H. Olson, and D. A. Pontarelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 119 (1957).

Sanders, C. L.

W. E. K. Middleton, and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 419 (1951).

Taylor, A. H.

A. H. Taylor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 51 (1935).

Tellex, P. A.

P. A. Tellex, and J. P. Waldron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 19 (1955).

Tingwaldt, C. P.

C. P. Tingwaldt, Optik 9, 323 (1952).

Toporets, A. S.

A. S. Toporets, Optics and Spectroscopy 7, 471 (1959).

Vershinin, O. E.

B. P. Kozyrev, and O. E. Vershinin, Optics and Spectroscopy 6, 345 (1959).

Waldron, J. P.

P. A. Tellex, and J. P. Waldron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 19 (1955).

Other

The ending "ance" is used to denote the radiation characteristic of a surface system that may be composed of many layers or particles and may be characterized by its geometry such as a surface roughness. The ending "ivity" is reserved for the characteristic of a perfectly plane interface between media of different indices of refraction.

H. J. McNicholas, Natl. Bur. Standards, J. Research 1, 29 (1928).

C. v. Fragstein, Optik 12, 60 (1955).

R. V. Dunkle, "Spectral reflectance measurements," in Surface Effects on Spacecraft Materials, edited by F. J. Clauss (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1960).

B. P. Kozyrev, and O. E. Vershinin, Optics and Spectroscopy 6, 345 (1959).

A. H. Karrer, Bur. Standards, Sci. Papers 17, 203 (1922).

A. H. Taylor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 51 (1935).

F. Benford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 165 (1934).

J. A. Jacquez and H. R. Kuppenheim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 460 (1955).

A. C. Hardy and J. Pineo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 502 (1931).

C. P. Tingwaldt, Optik 9, 323 (1952).

A. S. Toporets, Optics and Spectroscopy 7, 471 (1959).

P. Moon, The Scientific Basis of Illuminating Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1936), pp. 254, 291.

W. Budde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 217 (1960).

P. A. Tellex, and J. P. Waldron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 19 (1955).

G. Coolures, Master of Engineering thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1959.

All equations are written for monochromatic energy. All therefore require integration over the monochromator slit function, but for convenience this integration is not shown explicitly.

O. H. Olson, and D. A. Pontarelli, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 119 (1957).

K. Forsterling, and V. Freedericksz, Ann. Physik 40, 201 (1913).

J. T. Gier, R. V. Dunkle, and J. T. Bevans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 558 (1954).

W. E. K. Middleton, and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 419 (1951).

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