Abstract

For investigation of flicker produced by phasic variations of the brightness level, an electronic flicker apparatus was developed for continuous variation of brightness, area, light-dark ratio, ambient light ratio, and monocular or binocular exposure. The Sylvania glow modulator tube is excited by a steady current and simultaneously by rectangular impulses, thus furnishing an ambient and a flickering light source which can be mixed at any ratio within the total light emission capacity. At the same total light emission (Talbot level), the following ratios of ambient light, in percent of the total emission were investigated with monocular presentation: 0, 25, 50, 75, 85, and 95, at two levels of total brightness. Visual field (1.5°) and time interval ratio 50:50 were kept constant. There was no difference in the subjective sensation of flicker at any ambient light ratio. There was a continuous drop of the fusion frequency of flicker with increasing ratio of ambient light in three subjects. The extreme ratios (zero and 95% ambient light) were tested in 173 subjects. The drop of the fusion frequency of flicker at 95% ambient light ratio was statistically highly significant at both brightness levels, but was more pronounced at the higher brightness. A hypothesis for this phenomenon is presented.

© 1960 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Simonson and J. Brozek, Physiol. Revs. 32, 349 (1952).
  2. C. Landis, Physiol. Revs. 34, 259 (1954).
  3. N. Enzer, E. Simonson, and S. S. Blankstein, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29, 63 (1944).
  4. T. C. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B90, 313–329 (1902).
  5. H. E. Ives and E. F. Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. 31 (Ser. 6), 290–321 (1916).
  6. H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 343–361 (1922).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Bouma, Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 295 (1941).
  8. J. B. Collins and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Ilum. Eng. Soc. 19, 135–167 (1954).
  9. H. de Lange Dzn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 380–389 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. J. Crozier and E. J. Wolf, Gen. Physiol. 24, 505–534 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. H. Ireland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 4, 282–286 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. D. Vernon, Brit. J. Psychol. 24, 351–374 (1924).
  13. E. Simonson, unpublished data.
  14. E. Simonson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 47, 556–565 (1959).
    [PubMed]
  15. Credit is due C. W. Fritze for the circuit design and consultation which has made the development of FFF research work possible.
  16. C. Fritze and E. Simonson, Science 113, 547 (1951).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930).
  18. C. H. Graham and R. Granit, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 664 (1931).
  19. Geldard, quoted by S. H. Bartley, Vision (D. Van Nostrand and Company, Princeton, New Jersey, 1941), p. 224.
  20. S. H. Bartley, Vision (D. Van Nostrand and Company, Princeton, New Jersey, 1941), p. 225.

1959 (1)

E. Simonson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 47, 556–565 (1959).
[PubMed]

1954 (3)

C. Landis, Physiol. Revs. 34, 259 (1954).

J. B. Collins and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Ilum. Eng. Soc. 19, 135–167 (1954).

H. de Lange Dzn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 380–389 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

E. Simonson and J. Brozek, Physiol. Revs. 32, 349 (1952).

1951 (1)

C. Fritze and E. Simonson, Science 113, 547 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

F. H. Ireland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 4, 282–286 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

N. Enzer, E. Simonson, and S. S. Blankstein, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29, 63 (1944).

1941 (2)

P. J. Bouma, Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 295 (1941).

W. J. Crozier and E. J. Wolf, Gen. Physiol. 24, 505–534 (1941).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

C. H. Graham and R. Granit, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 664 (1931).

1930 (1)

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930).

1924 (1)

M. D. Vernon, Brit. J. Psychol. 24, 351–374 (1924).

1922 (1)

1916 (1)

H. E. Ives and E. F. Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. 31 (Ser. 6), 290–321 (1916).

1902 (1)

T. C. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B90, 313–329 (1902).

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, Vision (D. Van Nostrand and Company, Princeton, New Jersey, 1941), p. 225.

Geldard, quoted by S. H. Bartley, Vision (D. Van Nostrand and Company, Princeton, New Jersey, 1941), p. 224.

Blankstein, S. S.

N. Enzer, E. Simonson, and S. S. Blankstein, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29, 63 (1944).

Bouma, P. J.

P. J. Bouma, Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 295 (1941).

Brozek, J.

E. Simonson and J. Brozek, Physiol. Revs. 32, 349 (1952).

Collins, J. B.

J. B. Collins and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Ilum. Eng. Soc. 19, 135–167 (1954).

Crozier, W. J.

W. J. Crozier and E. J. Wolf, Gen. Physiol. 24, 505–534 (1941).
[CrossRef]

de Lange Dzn, H.

Enzer, N.

N. Enzer, E. Simonson, and S. S. Blankstein, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29, 63 (1944).

Fritze, C.

C. Fritze and E. Simonson, Science 113, 547 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geldard,

Geldard, quoted by S. H. Bartley, Vision (D. Van Nostrand and Company, Princeton, New Jersey, 1941), p. 224.

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and R. Granit, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 664 (1931).

Granit, R.

C. H. Graham and R. Granit, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 664 (1931).

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930).

Harper, P.

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930).

Hopkinson, R. G.

J. B. Collins and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Ilum. Eng. Soc. 19, 135–167 (1954).

Ireland, F. H.

F. H. Ireland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 4, 282–286 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 343–361 (1922).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Ives and E. F. Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. 31 (Ser. 6), 290–321 (1916).

Kingsbury, E. F.

H. E. Ives and E. F. Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. 31 (Ser. 6), 290–321 (1916).

Landis, C.

C. Landis, Physiol. Revs. 34, 259 (1954).

Porter, T. C.

T. C. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B90, 313–329 (1902).

Simonson, E.

E. Simonson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 47, 556–565 (1959).
[PubMed]

E. Simonson and J. Brozek, Physiol. Revs. 32, 349 (1952).

C. Fritze and E. Simonson, Science 113, 547 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Enzer, E. Simonson, and S. S. Blankstein, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29, 63 (1944).

E. Simonson, unpublished data.

Vernon, M. D.

M. D. Vernon, Brit. J. Psychol. 24, 351–374 (1924).

Wolf, E. J.

W. J. Crozier and E. J. Wolf, Gen. Physiol. 24, 505–534 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Simonson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 47, 556–565 (1959).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. (2)

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930).

C. H. Graham and R. Granit, Am. J. Physiol. 98, 664 (1931).

Brit. J. Psychol. (1)

M. D. Vernon, Brit. J. Psychol. 24, 351–374 (1924).

Gen. Physiol. (1)

W. J. Crozier and E. J. Wolf, Gen. Physiol. 24, 505–534 (1941).
[CrossRef]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

F. H. Ireland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 4, 282–286 (1950).
[CrossRef]

J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1)

N. Enzer, E. Simonson, and S. S. Blankstein, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29, 63 (1944).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Phil. Mag. (1)

H. E. Ives and E. F. Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. 31 (Ser. 6), 290–321 (1916).

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

P. J. Bouma, Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 295 (1941).

Physiol. Revs. (2)

E. Simonson and J. Brozek, Physiol. Revs. 32, 349 (1952).

C. Landis, Physiol. Revs. 34, 259 (1954).

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

T. C. Porter, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B90, 313–329 (1902).

Science (1)

C. Fritze and E. Simonson, Science 113, 547 (1951).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. Ilum. Eng. Soc. (1)

J. B. Collins and R. G. Hopkinson, Trans. Ilum. Eng. Soc. 19, 135–167 (1954).

Other (4)

Credit is due C. W. Fritze for the circuit design and consultation which has made the development of FFF research work possible.

E. Simonson, unpublished data.

Geldard, quoted by S. H. Bartley, Vision (D. Van Nostrand and Company, Princeton, New Jersey, 1941), p. 224.

S. H. Bartley, Vision (D. Van Nostrand and Company, Princeton, New Jersey, 1941), p. 225.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of flicker apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relation of flicker fusion frequency to % of ambient light showing decrease of the fusion frequency of flicker with increasing ambient light ratio, at constant brightness (150 ft-L). Average curve of three subjects.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Dial positions for different ambient light ratios at the same total current strength (light emission).

Tables Icon

Table II Effect of two ambient light ratios (AO and A95) on the fusion frequency of flicker in 173 healthy older men. (D1, mean difference between AO and A95; D2, mean difference between 15 and 150 ft-L brightness; Pt, statistical significance of differences as determined by means of the t test.)