Abstract

The variable phase system described is characterized by a wide separation of the deviated and the undeviated light bundles so that phase-modifying or absorbing elements can readily be inserted. The path separation is accomplished by a partially aluminized plate inserted in a direction normal to the optical axis, thus facilitating the necessary alignment. Geometrical coincidence has been obtained by introducing into one of the pathways a penta-type mirror system.

© 1960 Optical Society of America

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  1. Bennett, Jupnik, Osterberg, and Richards, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 65, 99 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. W. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A190, 422 (1947); H. Heine, U. S. Patent2,722,863 (1955); W. G. Hartley, Nature 159, 880 (1947); B. O. Payne, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. III,  74, 108 (1954); H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 726 (1947); H. Osterberg and A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 516, 905 (1950); 2, 700, 918 (1955); H. Wolter, “Schlieren-, Phasenkontrast- und Lichtschnittverfahren,” in Encyclopedia of Physics, edited by S. Flügge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg, 1956), Vol. 24, pps. 628–629.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. Dufour and M. Locquin, Compt. rend. 232, 2087 (1951); M. Locquin and M. Bessis, Rev. opt. 237(1952); M. V. Locquin, U. S. Patent2, 687, 670 (1954); K. Antenen, Mikroskopie 11, 129 (1956); Schweiz. Brau. Rundschau 4(1956).
    [PubMed]
  4. A. H. Bennett and A. J. Kavanagh, U. S. Patent2,737,084 (1956); H. Osterberg, U. S. Patent2, 732, 759 (1956); A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 675, 737 (1954); L. Leitz, U. S. Patent2, 746, 348 (1956).
  5. A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 655, 077 (1953); A. J. Kavanagh, U. S. Patent2, 685, 228 (1954); K. Räntsch, U. S. Patent2, 699, 092 (1955); D. Gabor, U. S. Patent2, 770, 166 (1956).
  6. H. Heine, U. S. Patent2, 674, 157 (1954).
  7. Saylor, Brice, and Zernike, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 329 (1950); F. C. Grigg, Nature 165, 368 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Rheinberg, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 16, 373 (1896); H. Wolter, Ann. Physik 8, 1 (1950); F. Gabler, Mikroskopie 6, 98 (1951); M. Bayer and J. Meyer-Arendt, Phot. u. Wiss. 4, 19 (1955).
    [Crossref]

1951 (1)

C. Dufour and M. Locquin, Compt. rend. 232, 2087 (1951); M. Locquin and M. Bessis, Rev. opt. 237(1952); M. V. Locquin, U. S. Patent2, 687, 670 (1954); K. Antenen, Mikroskopie 11, 129 (1956); Schweiz. Brau. Rundschau 4(1956).
[PubMed]

1950 (1)

1947 (1)

E. W. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A190, 422 (1947); H. Heine, U. S. Patent2,722,863 (1955); W. G. Hartley, Nature 159, 880 (1947); B. O. Payne, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. III,  74, 108 (1954); H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 726 (1947); H. Osterberg and A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 516, 905 (1950); 2, 700, 918 (1955); H. Wolter, “Schlieren-, Phasenkontrast- und Lichtschnittverfahren,” in Encyclopedia of Physics, edited by S. Flügge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg, 1956), Vol. 24, pps. 628–629.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

Bennett, Jupnik, Osterberg, and Richards, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 65, 99 (1946).
[Crossref]

1896 (1)

J. Rheinberg, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 16, 373 (1896); H. Wolter, Ann. Physik 8, 1 (1950); F. Gabler, Mikroskopie 6, 98 (1951); M. Bayer and J. Meyer-Arendt, Phot. u. Wiss. 4, 19 (1955).
[Crossref]

Bennett,

Bennett, Jupnik, Osterberg, and Richards, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 65, 99 (1946).
[Crossref]

Bennett, A. H.

A. H. Bennett and A. J. Kavanagh, U. S. Patent2,737,084 (1956); H. Osterberg, U. S. Patent2, 732, 759 (1956); A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 675, 737 (1954); L. Leitz, U. S. Patent2, 746, 348 (1956).

A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 655, 077 (1953); A. J. Kavanagh, U. S. Patent2, 685, 228 (1954); K. Räntsch, U. S. Patent2, 699, 092 (1955); D. Gabor, U. S. Patent2, 770, 166 (1956).

Brice,

Dufour, C.

C. Dufour and M. Locquin, Compt. rend. 232, 2087 (1951); M. Locquin and M. Bessis, Rev. opt. 237(1952); M. V. Locquin, U. S. Patent2, 687, 670 (1954); K. Antenen, Mikroskopie 11, 129 (1956); Schweiz. Brau. Rundschau 4(1956).
[PubMed]

Heine, H.

H. Heine, U. S. Patent2, 674, 157 (1954).

Jupnik,

Bennett, Jupnik, Osterberg, and Richards, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 65, 99 (1946).
[Crossref]

Kavanagh, A. J.

A. H. Bennett and A. J. Kavanagh, U. S. Patent2,737,084 (1956); H. Osterberg, U. S. Patent2, 732, 759 (1956); A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 675, 737 (1954); L. Leitz, U. S. Patent2, 746, 348 (1956).

Locquin, M.

C. Dufour and M. Locquin, Compt. rend. 232, 2087 (1951); M. Locquin and M. Bessis, Rev. opt. 237(1952); M. V. Locquin, U. S. Patent2, 687, 670 (1954); K. Antenen, Mikroskopie 11, 129 (1956); Schweiz. Brau. Rundschau 4(1956).
[PubMed]

Osterberg,

Bennett, Jupnik, Osterberg, and Richards, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 65, 99 (1946).
[Crossref]

Rheinberg, J.

J. Rheinberg, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 16, 373 (1896); H. Wolter, Ann. Physik 8, 1 (1950); F. Gabler, Mikroskopie 6, 98 (1951); M. Bayer and J. Meyer-Arendt, Phot. u. Wiss. 4, 19 (1955).
[Crossref]

Richards,

Bennett, Jupnik, Osterberg, and Richards, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 65, 99 (1946).
[Crossref]

Saylor,

Taylor, E. W.

E. W. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A190, 422 (1947); H. Heine, U. S. Patent2,722,863 (1955); W. G. Hartley, Nature 159, 880 (1947); B. O. Payne, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. III,  74, 108 (1954); H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 726 (1947); H. Osterberg and A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 516, 905 (1950); 2, 700, 918 (1955); H. Wolter, “Schlieren-, Phasenkontrast- und Lichtschnittverfahren,” in Encyclopedia of Physics, edited by S. Flügge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg, 1956), Vol. 24, pps. 628–629.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zernike,

Compt. rend. (1)

C. Dufour and M. Locquin, Compt. rend. 232, 2087 (1951); M. Locquin and M. Bessis, Rev. opt. 237(1952); M. V. Locquin, U. S. Patent2, 687, 670 (1954); K. Antenen, Mikroskopie 11, 129 (1956); Schweiz. Brau. Rundschau 4(1956).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. (1)

J. Rheinberg, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 16, 373 (1896); H. Wolter, Ann. Physik 8, 1 (1950); F. Gabler, Mikroskopie 6, 98 (1951); M. Bayer and J. Meyer-Arendt, Phot. u. Wiss. 4, 19 (1955).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

E. W. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A190, 422 (1947); H. Heine, U. S. Patent2,722,863 (1955); W. G. Hartley, Nature 159, 880 (1947); B. O. Payne, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. III,  74, 108 (1954); H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 726 (1947); H. Osterberg and A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 516, 905 (1950); 2, 700, 918 (1955); H. Wolter, “Schlieren-, Phasenkontrast- und Lichtschnittverfahren,” in Encyclopedia of Physics, edited by S. Flügge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg, 1956), Vol. 24, pps. 628–629.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. (1)

Bennett, Jupnik, Osterberg, and Richards, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc. 65, 99 (1946).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

A. H. Bennett and A. J. Kavanagh, U. S. Patent2,737,084 (1956); H. Osterberg, U. S. Patent2, 732, 759 (1956); A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 675, 737 (1954); L. Leitz, U. S. Patent2, 746, 348 (1956).

A. H. Bennett, U. S. Patent2, 655, 077 (1953); A. J. Kavanagh, U. S. Patent2, 685, 228 (1954); K. Räntsch, U. S. Patent2, 699, 092 (1955); D. Gabor, U. S. Patent2, 770, 166 (1956).

H. Heine, U. S. Patent2, 674, 157 (1954).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic arrangement of a variable phase contrast system: P1 and P2, primary and secondary back focal plane of microscopic objective; N, recombining prism system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Symmetry conditions when employing beam splitter and prism (left) and mirrors (right). The annular condenser aperture and its images are shown by circles which are interrupted to indicate their orientation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complete pathway of the variable phase system described. Some distances are exaggerated. For a description see text.