Abstract

The luminous efficiency of the spectrum, dichromatic coefficients, spectral color confusions, and matches of spectral to pigment colors were obtained on a congenital tritanope. The results are compared with those obtained by Wright and by Thomson and Wright. The conclusion is drawn that a point close to the spectrum locus in the violet region of the normal chromaticity plane has been reliably located as representing a “missing” receptor process, according to the Helmholtz theoretical development. The possible implications of this finding are pursued with reference to the theoretical primary receptor functions of normals and the question of a theoretically derived equal chromaticity space.

© 1960 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 509 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. V. Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, edited by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, 1924), Chap. II, pp. 148–150.
  3. L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. H. G. Pitt, “Characteristics of dichromatic vision,” , Medical Research Council, H.M.S.O. (1935).
  5. D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 33, 407 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. R. Miles, J. Neurophysiol. 17, 22 (1954).
    [PubMed]
  7. G. A. Fry, “Final report on contract nonr-560(00) NR 141–047,” between the Office of Naval Research and the Ohio State University (June15, 1953).
  8. H. G. Sperling, National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8, “Visual problems of colour” (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1958), Paper No. 8.
  9. H. G. Sperling and W. G. Lewis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 983 (1959).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W. D. Wright, Researches in Normal and Defective Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 265.
  12. Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, (1933).
  13. F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).
  14. H. v. Helmholtz, Z. Sinnesphysiol.,  3, 517 (1891).
  15. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Shrödinger, Ann. Physik 63(1920).
  17. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 675 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. C. Breckenridge and W. R. Schaub, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 370 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  21. W. R. J. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 137 (1957).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. Dresler, Trans. Am. Illum. Eng. Soc. 18, 141 (1953).

1959 (1)

1958 (1)

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

1954 (1)

W. R. Miles, J. Neurophysiol. 17, 22 (1954).
[PubMed]

1953 (2)

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dresler, Trans. Am. Illum. Eng. Soc. 18, 141 (1953).

1952 (1)

1946 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
[Crossref]

1944 (2)

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 33, 407 (1944).
[Crossref]

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).

1943 (1)

1942 (1)

1939 (1)

1935 (1)

1920 (1)

E. Shrödinger, Ann. Physik 63(1920).

1891 (1)

H. v. Helmholtz, Z. Sinnesphysiol.,  3, 517 (1891).

Breckenridge, F. C.

Brown, W. R. J.

Dresler, A.

A. Dresler, Trans. Am. Illum. Eng. Soc. 18, 141 (1953).

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, “Final report on contract nonr-560(00) NR 141–047,” between the Office of Naval Research and the Ohio State University (June15, 1953).

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helmholtz, H. v.

H. v. Helmholtz, Z. Sinnesphysiol.,  3, 517 (1891).

H. V. Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, edited by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, 1924), Chap. II, pp. 148–150.

Hsia, Y.

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 33, 407 (1944).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
[Crossref]

Lewis, W. G.

MacAdam, D. L.

Martin,

Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, (1933).

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, J. Neurophysiol. 17, 22 (1954).
[PubMed]

Morgan,

Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, (1933).

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).

F. H. G. Pitt, “Characteristics of dichromatic vision,” , Medical Research Council, H.M.S.O. (1935).

Schaub, W. R.

Shrödinger, E.

E. Shrödinger, Ann. Physik 63(1920).

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling and W. G. Lewis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 983 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Sperling, National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8, “Visual problems of colour” (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1958), Paper No. 8.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
[Crossref]

Thomson, L. C.

Warburton,

Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, (1933).

Wright, W. D.

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 509 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Wright, Researches in Normal and Defective Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 265.

Ann. Physik (1)

E. Shrödinger, Ann. Physik 63(1920).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

W. R. Miles, J. Neurophysiol. 17, 22 (1954).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (8)

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (1)

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 33, 407 (1944).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 101 (1944).

Science (1)

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trans. Am. Illum. Eng. Soc. (1)

A. Dresler, Trans. Am. Illum. Eng. Soc. 18, 141 (1953).

Z. Sinnesphysiol. (1)

H. v. Helmholtz, Z. Sinnesphysiol.,  3, 517 (1891).

Other (6)

G. A. Fry, “Final report on contract nonr-560(00) NR 141–047,” between the Office of Naval Research and the Ohio State University (June15, 1953).

H. G. Sperling, National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 8, “Visual problems of colour” (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1958), Paper No. 8.

W. D. Wright, Researches in Normal and Defective Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 265.

Martin, Warburton, and Morgan, (1933).

F. H. G. Pitt, “Characteristics of dichromatic vision,” , Medical Research Council, H.M.S.O. (1935).

H. V. Helmholtz, Physiological Optics, edited by J. P. C. Southall (Optical Society of America, 1924), Chap. II, pp. 148–150.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The spectral luminous efficiency function of the congenital tritanope compared with the range of Wright’s tritanopes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The diochromatic coefficient curves of the tritanope for primaries 460 mμ and 650 mμ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The tritanope’s color confusion lines derived from the dichromatic coefficient curves, shown crossing the violet section of the spectrum locus in the 1951 CIE diagram. The least squares point is compared with those obtained by Thomson and Wright, Judd, and Pitt.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The tritanope’s color confusion lines derived from direct spectral matches, are shown crossing the violet section of the spectrum locus in the 1951 CIE diagram.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The rg chromaticity plane derived from the 1931 CIE tristimulus values by linear homogeneous transformation according to Eqs. (1)(3). Shown as dots are six points on each of MacAdam’s J.N.D. ellipses. The circles represent 10 times one just noticeable difference predicted according to Eq. (4). The color confusion lines of the three classes of dichromats in this plane are shown in the insert.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A comparison of (a) the MacAdam J.N.D. ellipses in our rg plane with (b) the same data transformed to trial and error primaries by MacAdam after Judd’s formulation (see explanation in text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The superimposed MacAdam ellipses from our rg plane compared with (b) 12 observers’ ellipses for the same color with little matching experience and (c) after considerable matching experience (after Brown21).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I The mean matches of spectral to Munsell pigment colors by congenital tritanope: J.

Equations (4)

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r ¯ =     0.665 x ¯ + 0.470 y ¯ + - 0.135 z ¯ ,
g ¯ = - 0.462 x ¯ + 1.364 y ¯ +     0.098 z ¯ ,
b ¯ = - 0.009 x ¯ + 0.025 y ¯ +     0.233 z ¯ .
d s = ( d r 2 + d g 2 ) 1 2 .