Abstract

Cats were prepared by the encéphale isolé technique. A small plane-mirror mount was sutured to each cornea without obstructing vision, and eye movements were recorded using the optical-lever method. The records showed physiological nystagmus similar to that in man, although the cats had fewer and smaller saccades. Some saccades were binocular, but usually they were uniocular. The fine tremor varied in frequency from 35–65 cps, averaging 50 cps, and in amplitude from 4–52 sec of arc, averaging 22 sec. Curare decreased and ultimately abolished eye movements and physiological nystagmus, whereas neostigmine increased them. Physiological nystagmus is therefore mediated by efferent neural stimulation of the eye muscles. Tremor was also recorded from the detached inferior oblique muscle, as well as from the eyeball with most of the extraocular muscles detached. Fine tremor was also found in finger pointing in man. The significance of physiological nystagmus to vision is briefly discussed.

© 1960 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Dohlman, Acta Oto-laryngol., Suppl. No. 5 (1925).
  2. F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475–483 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687–701 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  4. Riggs, Armington, and Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315–321 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1–17 (1953).
  6. F. W. Hebbard, Eye Movements During Fixation and Fusion, Ph.D. Dissertation (University of California, 1957).
  7. F. Bremer, Compt. rend. soc. biol. 122, 460–467 (1936).
  8. L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17–18 (1951).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. R. Roche, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 91–94 (1950).
    [PubMed]
  10. F. C. Cordes and R. S. Mullen, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 557–564 (1951).
    [PubMed]
  11. Drucker, Sadove, and Unna, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 543–553 (1951).
  12. H. Farquharson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 554–555 (1951).
    [PubMed]
  13. D. G. Cogan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).
  14. H. Gifford, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).
  15. L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1955).
  16. I. A. Boyd and A. R. Martin, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 61–91 (1956).
  17. A. M. Halliday and J. W. T. Redfearn, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 600–611 (1956).
  18. L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872–873 (1952).
  19. R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36–37 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495–501 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163–172 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. Hering, Ber. math.-phys. Classe Königl. Sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, naturw. Teil, 16–24 (1899). Reprinted in Wissenschaftliche Abhandlung von Ewald Hering (Georg Thieme, Leipzig, 1931), Band 2.
  23. E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Physiol. 64, 561–591 (1923).
  24. G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942).

1956 (2)

I. A. Boyd and A. R. Martin, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 61–91 (1956).

A. M. Halliday and J. W. T. Redfearn, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 600–611 (1956).

1954 (1)

1953 (2)

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1–17 (1953).

Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495–501 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (3)

F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163–172 (1952).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872–873 (1952).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36–37 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1951 (4)

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17–18 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Cordes and R. S. Mullen, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 557–564 (1951).
[PubMed]

Drucker, Sadove, and Unna, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 543–553 (1951).

H. Farquharson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 554–555 (1951).
[PubMed]

1950 (4)

D. G. Cogan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

H. Gifford, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

J. R. Roche, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 91–94 (1950).
[PubMed]

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687–701 (1950).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

F. Bremer, Compt. rend. soc. biol. 122, 460–467 (1936).

1934 (1)

F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475–483 (1934).
[Crossref]

1925 (1)

G. Dohlman, Acta Oto-laryngol., Suppl. No. 5 (1925).

1923 (1)

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Physiol. 64, 561–591 (1923).

1899 (1)

E. Hering, Ber. math.-phys. Classe Königl. Sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, naturw. Teil, 16–24 (1899). Reprinted in Wissenschaftliche Abhandlung von Ewald Hering (Georg Thieme, Leipzig, 1931), Band 2.

Adler, F. H.

F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475–483 (1934).
[Crossref]

Andersen, E. E.

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Physiol. 64, 561–591 (1923).

Armington,

Boyd, I. A.

I. A. Boyd and A. R. Martin, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 61–91 (1956).

Bremer, F.

F. Bremer, Compt. rend. soc. biol. 122, 460–467 (1936).

Cogan, D. G.

D. G. Cogan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

Cordes, F. C.

F. C. Cordes and R. S. Mullen, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 557–564 (1951).
[PubMed]

Cornsweet,

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1–17 (1953).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36–37 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dohlman, G.

G. Dohlman, Acta Oto-laryngol., Suppl. No. 5 (1925).

Drucker,

Drucker, Sadove, and Unna, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 543–553 (1951).

Farquharson, H.

H. Farquharson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 554–555 (1951).
[PubMed]

Fliegelman, M.

F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475–483 (1934).
[Crossref]

Gifford, H.

H. Gifford, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

Gilman, A.

L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1955).

Ginsborg, B. L.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1–17 (1953).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36–37 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodman, L. S.

L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1955).

Halliday, A. M.

A. M. Halliday and J. W. T. Redfearn, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 600–611 (1956).

Hebbard, F. W.

F. W. Hebbard, Eye Movements During Fixation and Fusion, Ph.D. Dissertation (University of California, 1957).

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Ber. math.-phys. Classe Königl. Sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, naturw. Teil, 16–24 (1899). Reprinted in Wissenschaftliche Abhandlung von Ewald Hering (Georg Thieme, Leipzig, 1931), Band 2.

Martin, A. R.

I. A. Boyd and A. R. Martin, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 61–91 (1956).

Mullen, R. S.

F. C. Cordes and R. S. Mullen, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 557–564 (1951).
[PubMed]

Ratliff,

Ratliff, F.

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872–873 (1952).

F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163–172 (1952).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17–18 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687–701 (1950).
[Crossref]

Redfearn, J. W. T.

A. M. Halliday and J. W. T. Redfearn, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 600–611 (1956).

Riggs,

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872–873 (1952).

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17–18 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687–701 (1950).
[Crossref]

Roche, J. R.

J. R. Roche, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 91–94 (1950).
[PubMed]

Sadove,

Drucker, Sadove, and Unna, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 543–553 (1951).

Unna,

Drucker, Sadove, and Unna, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 543–553 (1951).

Walls, G. L.

G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942).

Weymouth, F. W.

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Physiol. 64, 561–591 (1923).

Acta Oto-laryngol. (1)

G. Dohlman, Acta Oto-laryngol., Suppl. No. 5 (1925).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (6)

J. R. Roche, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 91–94 (1950).
[PubMed]

F. C. Cordes and R. S. Mullen, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 557–564 (1951).
[PubMed]

Drucker, Sadove, and Unna, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 543–553 (1951).

H. Farquharson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 554–555 (1951).
[PubMed]

D. G. Cogan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

H. Gifford, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Physiol. 64, 561–591 (1923).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (1)

F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475–483 (1934).
[Crossref]

Ber. math.-phys. Classe Königl. Sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, naturw. Teil (1)

E. Hering, Ber. math.-phys. Classe Königl. Sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, naturw. Teil, 16–24 (1899). Reprinted in Wissenschaftliche Abhandlung von Ewald Hering (Georg Thieme, Leipzig, 1931), Band 2.

Compt. rend. soc. biol. (1)

F. Bremer, Compt. rend. soc. biol. 122, 460–467 (1936).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (2)

F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163–172 (1952).
[Crossref]

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687–701 (1950).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Physiol. (London) (3)

I. A. Boyd and A. R. Martin, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 61–91 (1956).

A. M. Halliday and J. W. T. Redfearn, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 600–611 (1956).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1–17 (1953).

Nature (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36–37 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17–18 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

F. W. Hebbard, Eye Movements During Fixation and Fusion, Ph.D. Dissertation (University of California, 1957).

L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1955).

G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Physiological nystagmus in man. The horizontal arrow indicates one-half sec of time; the vertical arrow shows 10 min of eye rotation. Two saccades, tremor, and drift are evident.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Physiological nystagmus in cat. A typical cat saccade is shown, as well as tremor. The mean frequency of the tremor here was 56 cps; mean amplitude was 21 sec.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Movement of the detached inferior oblique muscle in cat. The vertical arrow represents the eye rotation which would occur if the effective contact of the tendon were tangent to the globe.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Movement of a cat’s eye 20 min after injection of 100 u of curare. The large eye movements had almost disappeared. Ignore the lower and fainter eye trace. Four real tremors can be seen in half-sec interval No. 2, but such tremors were then infrequent. The almost continuously present very fine vibration of the eye trace here is an artifact, since it persisted after death. The “pulse movements” of the eye are indicated by the dots and occurred 180 times per min. In this cat the pulse movements were smaller than usual.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Movement of a cat’s eye 33 min after injection of neostigmine. A similar record was obtained 45 min later.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Movement of the pinna of a cat’s ear. Trace H indicates head movement. The vertical arrow indicates the movement of the trace produce by a 10 μ movement of the tip of the pinna.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Movement of the pointing right index finger in man. The record shows three traces because of unscreened multiple reflections from the light source used for the optical lever. The tremor frequency here was about 25 cps.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Movement of the positioned elbow in man. The same subject was used as for Fig. 7.