Abstract

Cats were prepared by the <i>encéphzale isolé</i> technique. A small plane-mirror mount was sutured to each cornea without obstructing vision, and eye movements were recorded using the optical-lever method. The records showed physiological nystagmus similar to that in man, although the cats had fewer and smaller saccades. Some saccades were binocular, but usually they were uniocular. The fine tremor varied in frequency from 35–65 cps, averaging 50 cps, and in amplitude from 4–52 sec of arc, averaging 22 sec. Curare decreased and ultimately abolished eye movements and physiological nystagmus, whereas neostigmine increased them. Physiological nystagmus is therefore mediated by efferent neural stimulation of the eye muscles. Tremor was also recorded from the detached inferior oblique muscle, as well as from the eyeball with most of the extraocular muscles detached. Fine tremor was also found in finger pointing in man. The significance of physiological nystagmus to vision is briefly discussed.

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  2. F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475–483 (1934).
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Adler, F. H.

F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475–483 (1934).

Andersen, E. E.

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Physiol. 64, 561–591 (1923).

Boyd, I. A.

I. A. Boyd and A. R. Martin, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 61–91 (1956).

Bremer, F.

F. Bremer, Compt. rend. soc. biol. 122, 460–467 (1936).

Cogan, D. G.

D. G. Cogan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

Cordes, F. C.

F. C. Cordes and R. S. Mullen, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 557–564 (1951).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1–17 (1953).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36–37 (1952).

Dohlman, G.

G. Dohlman, Acta Oto-laryngol., Suppl. No. 5 (1925).

Farquharson, H.

H. Farquharson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 554–555 (1951).

Fliegelman, M.

F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475–483 (1934).

Gifford, H.

H. Gifford, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

Gilman, A.

L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1955).

Ginsborg, B. L.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36–37 (1952).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1–17 (1953).

Goodman, L. S.

L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1955).

Halliday, A. M.

A. M. Halliday and J. W. T. Redfearn, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 600–611 (1956).

Hebbard, F. W.

F. W. Hebbard, Eye Movements During Fixation and Fusion, Ph.D. Dissertation (University of California, 1957).

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Ber. math.-phys. Classe Königl. Sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, naturw. Teil, 16–24 (1899). Reprinted in Wissenschaftliche Abhandlung von Ewald Hering (Georg Thieme, Leipzig, 1931), Band 2.

Martin, A. R.

I. A. Boyd and A. R. Martin, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 61–91 (1956).

Mullen, R. S.

F. C. Cordes and R. S. Mullen, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 557–564 (1951).

Ratliff, F.

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17–18 (1951).

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687–701 (1950).

F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163–172 (1952).

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872–873 (1952).

Redfearn, J. W. T.

A. M. Halliday and J. W. T. Redfearn, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 600–611 (1956).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872–873 (1952).

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687–701 (1950).

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17–18 (1951).

Roche, J. R.

J. R. Roche, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 91–94 (1950).

Walls, G. L.

G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942).

Weymouth, F. W.

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Physiol. 64, 561–591 (1923).

Other (24)

G. Dohlman, Acta Oto-laryngol., Suppl. No. 5 (1925).

F. H. Adler and M. Fliegelman, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 12, 475–483 (1934).

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687–701 (1950).

Riggs, Armington, and Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 315–321 (1954).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 1–17 (1953).

F. W. Hebbard, Eye Movements During Fixation and Fusion, Ph.D. Dissertation (University of California, 1957).

F. Bremer, Compt. rend. soc. biol. 122, 460–467 (1936).

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, Science 114, 17–18 (1951).

J. R. Roche, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 91–94 (1950).

F. C. Cordes and R. S. Mullen, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 557–564 (1951).

Drucker, Sadove, and Unna, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 543–553 (1951).

H. Farquharson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 34, 554–555 (1951).

D. G. Cogan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

H. Gifford, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 95 (1950).

L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1955).

I. A. Boyd and A. R. Martin, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 61–91 (1956).

A. M. Halliday and J. W. T. Redfearn, J. Physiol. (London) 134, 600–611 (1956).

L. A. Riggs and F. Ratliff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872–873 (1952).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36–37 (1952).

Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495–501 (1953).

F. Ratliff, J. Exptl. Psychol. 43, 163–172 (1952).

E. Hering, Ber. math.-phys. Classe Königl. Sächs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, naturw. Teil, 16–24 (1899). Reprinted in Wissenschaftliche Abhandlung von Ewald Hering (Georg Thieme, Leipzig, 1931), Band 2.

E. E. Andersen and F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Physiol. 64, 561–591 (1923).

G. L. Walls, The Vertebrate Eye (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1942).

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