Abstract

A hypothesis is presented, the chief assumptions of which are that neural impulses originating in retinal receptors converge upon neurons in a central area, and that the excitation of the most excited neuron in that area determines the response. The relation of this hypothesis to earlier ideas along similar lines is discussed. It is shown that the hypothesis leads to testable relationships between thresholds for circular targets and for targets of other shapes. Evidence is presented that diffuse neural connections are relatively more important at low background levels, and an interpretation is suggested.

© 1960 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. R. Blackwell and G. A. Austin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 837(A) (1952).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. B. Kristofferson and H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 114(A) (1957).
  3. Graham, Brown, and Mote, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 555–573 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, “Recent evidence for neural mechanisms in vision leading to a general theory of sensory acuity,” Biological Symposia (The Jaques Cattel Press, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1942), Vol. 7, p. 117.
  5. C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. H. Brown and J. I. Niven, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 464–476 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 574–587 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

A. B. Kristofferson and H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 114(A) (1957).

1952 (1)

H. R. Blackwell and G. A. Austin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 837(A) (1952).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

1944 (1)

R. H. Brown and J. I. Niven, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 464–476 (1944).
[Crossref]

1940 (1)

C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940).
[Crossref]

1939 (2)

Graham, Brown, and Mote, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 555–573 (1939).
[Crossref]

C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 574–587 (1939).
[Crossref]

Austin, G. A.

H. R. Blackwell and G. A. Austin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 837(A) (1952).
[Crossref]

Bartlett, N. R.

C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940).
[Crossref]

C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 574–587 (1939).
[Crossref]

Blackwell, H. R.

A. B. Kristofferson and H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 114(A) (1957).

H. R. Blackwell and G. A. Austin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 837(A) (1952).
[Crossref]

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown,

Graham, Brown, and Mote, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 555–573 (1939).
[Crossref]

Brown, R. H.

R. H. Brown and J. I. Niven, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 464–476 (1944).
[Crossref]

Graham,

Graham, Brown, and Mote, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 555–573 (1939).
[Crossref]

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940).
[Crossref]

C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 574–587 (1939).
[Crossref]

Kristofferson, A. B.

A. B. Kristofferson and H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 114(A) (1957).

Marshall, W. H.

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, “Recent evidence for neural mechanisms in vision leading to a general theory of sensory acuity,” Biological Symposia (The Jaques Cattel Press, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1942), Vol. 7, p. 117.

Mote,

Graham, Brown, and Mote, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 555–573 (1939).
[Crossref]

Niven, J. I.

R. H. Brown and J. I. Niven, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 464–476 (1944).
[Crossref]

Talbot, S. A.

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, “Recent evidence for neural mechanisms in vision leading to a general theory of sensory acuity,” Biological Symposia (The Jaques Cattel Press, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1942), Vol. 7, p. 117.

J. Exptl. Psychol. (4)

Graham, Brown, and Mote, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 555–573 (1939).
[Crossref]

C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 27, 149–159 (1940).
[Crossref]

R. H. Brown and J. I. Niven, J. Exptl. Psychol. 34, 464–476 (1944).
[Crossref]

C. H. Graham and N. R. Bartlett, J. Exptl. Psychol. 24, 574–587 (1939).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Blackwell and G. A. Austin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 837(A) (1952).
[Crossref]

A. B. Kristofferson and H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 114(A) (1957).

Other (1)

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, “Recent evidence for neural mechanisms in vision leading to a general theory of sensory acuity,” Biological Symposia (The Jaques Cattel Press, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1942), Vol. 7, p. 117.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimentally determined element contribution functions.

Equations (20)

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X i - X i 0 = j X i Y j ( Y j - Y 0 )             ( i = 1 , 2 , ) ,
E i = j a i j ( Y j - Y 0 )             ( i = 1 , 2 , ) .
E max = E c ,
E max = K Δ B .
K = E c / Δ · B ,
Y j - Y 0 = f [ ρ ( z , z j ) ] Δ B .
Y j - Y 0 = Δ B F f [ ρ ( z , z j ) ] d z ,
E i = Δ B F j a i j f [ ρ ( z , z j ) ] d z ,
E i = Δ B F χ i ( z ) d z .
E = Δ B F r φ ( r ) d r d θ .
K = 0 2 π 0 R ( θ ) r φ ( r ) d r d θ ,
E = k log Δ B Δ B 0 0 2 π 0 R r d r d θ r p , Δ B Δ B 0 ;             E = 0 , Δ B < Δ B 0 ,
E = 2 π k 2 - p R 2 - p log Δ B Δ B 0 ,
log Δ · B = 2 - p 2 π k E c R p - 2 + log Δ B 0 .
log Δ · B = ( 2 - p 2 π k E c ) 1 2 R ( p - 2 ) / 2 + log Δ B 0 ,
1 Δ · B = 2 π E c 0 R r φ ( r ) d r .
0 R r φ ( r ) d r = E c Φ ( R ) 2 π .
φ ( r ) = E c Φ ( r ) / 2 π .
1 Δ · B = 1 E c 0 2 π 0 R ( θ ) r φ ( r ) d r d θ ,
1 Δ · B = 1 2 π 0 2 π Φ [ R ( θ ) ] d θ ,