Abstract

This report deals with the effects of two adaptational variables upon the human electroretinogram. First, further investigation of a temporal increase in electroretinogram amplitude during light adaptation is reported. The effects of red and white test flashes were compared at several adaptation levels. The temporal increase was found only for high luminance adaptation levels and only for white test flashes. Second, the effects of constant luminance test flashes upon a wide range of adaptation levels were investigated. It was found that increasing levels of light adaptation produced decreases in the amplitudes of the components of the electroretinogram. Long latency components were affected by lower levels of light adaptation and to a greater extent than short latency components. The results are considered in relation to the duplicity theory and to the resting potential of the eye.

© 1960 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. R. Biersdorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 412 (1958).
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  8. S. G. DeGroot and J. W. Gebhard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 492 (1952).
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  9. A. Kohlrausch in Bethe, Bergman, Embden, and Ellinger, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. 12, Pt. 2, p. 1393.
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    [CrossRef]
  12. G. ten Doesschate and J. ten Doesschate, Ophthalmologica 132, 308 (1956). Ophthalmologica 134, 183 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 839 (1955).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol 118, 289 (1952).
  17. M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta 1, 59 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. W. Campbell and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 130, 131 (1955).
  19. Granit, Holmberg, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 94, 430 (1938).and Granit, Munsterhjelm, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 96, 31 (1939).

1958 (2)

J. C. Armington and W. R. Biersdorf, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 51, 1 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Biersdorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 412 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1957 (2)

W. R. Biersdorf and J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 208 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Goodman and H. Bornschein, A.M.A. Arch Opthalmol. 58, 174 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (2)

G. ten Doesschate and J. ten Doesschate, Ophthalmologica 132, 308 (1956). Ophthalmologica 134, 183 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Crampton, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 534 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955 (3)

H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 839 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francois, Verriest, and DeRouck, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 398 (1955), Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 305 (1956).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Campbell and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 130, 131 (1955).

1954 (2)

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta 1, 59 (1954).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Burian, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 509 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1952 (3)

1949 (2)

L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 172 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1940 (1)

W. R. Miles, Science 91, 456 (1940).

1938 (1)

Granit, Holmberg, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 94, 430 (1938).and Granit, Munsterhjelm, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 96, 31 (1939).

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta 1, 59 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Armington,

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol 118, 289 (1952).

Armington, J. C.

Baker, H. D.

Bergman,

A. Kohlrausch in Bethe, Bergman, Embden, and Ellinger, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. 12, Pt. 2, p. 1393.

Bethe,

A. Kohlrausch in Bethe, Bergman, Embden, and Ellinger, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. 12, Pt. 2, p. 1393.

Biersdorf, W. R.

Bornschein, H.

G. Goodman and H. Bornschein, A.M.A. Arch Opthalmol. 58, 174 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Burian, H. M.

H. M. Burian, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 509 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 130, 131 (1955).

Crampton, G. H.

G. H. Crampton, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 534 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeGroot, S. G.

DeRouck,

Francois, Verriest, and DeRouck, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 398 (1955), Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 305 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Ellinger,

A. Kohlrausch in Bethe, Bergman, Embden, and Ellinger, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. 12, Pt. 2, p. 1393.

Embden,

A. Kohlrausch in Bethe, Bergman, Embden, and Ellinger, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. 12, Pt. 2, p. 1393.

Francois,

Francois, Verriest, and DeRouck, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 398 (1955), Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 305 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Gebhard, J. W.

Goodman, G.

G. Goodman and H. Bornschein, A.M.A. Arch Opthalmol. 58, 174 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Granit,

Granit, Holmberg, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 94, 430 (1938).and Granit, Munsterhjelm, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 96, 31 (1939).

Holmberg,

Granit, Holmberg, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 94, 430 (1938).and Granit, Munsterhjelm, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 96, 31 (1939).

Johnson,

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol 118, 289 (1952).

Johnson, E. P.

L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Kohlrausch, A.

A. Kohlrausch in Bethe, Bergman, Embden, and Ellinger, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. 12, Pt. 2, p. 1393.

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, Science 91, 456 (1940).

Riggs,

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol 118, 289 (1952).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Rushton, W. A. H.

F. W. Campbell and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 130, 131 (1955).

Stiles, W. S.

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta 1, 59 (1954).
[CrossRef]

ten Doesschate, G.

G. ten Doesschate and J. ten Doesschate, Ophthalmologica 132, 308 (1956). Ophthalmologica 134, 183 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ten Doesschate, J.

G. ten Doesschate and J. ten Doesschate, Ophthalmologica 132, 308 (1956). Ophthalmologica 134, 183 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verriest,

Francois, Verriest, and DeRouck, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 398 (1955), Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 305 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Zewi,

Granit, Holmberg, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 94, 430 (1938).and Granit, Munsterhjelm, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 96, 31 (1939).

A.M.A. Arch Opthalmol. (1)

G. Goodman and H. Bornschein, A.M.A. Arch Opthalmol. 58, 174 (1957).
[CrossRef]

A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. M. Burian, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 51, 509 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

Francois, Verriest, and DeRouck, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 398 (1955), Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 40, 305 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. (2)

J. C. Armington and W. R. Biersdorf, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 51, 1 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Crampton, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 534 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

L. A. Riggs and E. P. Johnson, J. Exptl. Psychol. 39, 415 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Physiol (1)

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol 118, 289 (1952).

J. Physiol. (2)

F. W. Campbell and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 130, 131 (1955).

Granit, Holmberg, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 94, 430 (1938).and Granit, Munsterhjelm, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 96, 31 (1939).

Ophthalmologica (1)

G. ten Doesschate and J. ten Doesschate, Ophthalmologica 132, 308 (1956). Ophthalmologica 134, 183 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optica Acta (1)

M. Aguilar and W. S. Stiles, Optica Acta 1, 59 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. R. Miles, Science 91, 456 (1940).

Other (1)

A. Kohlrausch in Bethe, Bergman, Embden, and Ellinger, Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1931), Vol. 12, Pt. 2, p. 1393.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electroretinograms obtained with red and white test lights at four adaptation levels. The adaptation level is labeled in log ft-L or “DK” for dark adaptation. Subject JL. Responses show a stimulus artifact (marked with letter S), a negative A wave, and a positive B wave. Those obtained with red test flashes also show a positive X wave (marked with letter X).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Amplitude of the positive component in response to white test flashes as a function of time in the light. Each curve is labeled with the adaptation level in log ft-L. Only the three highest levels showed the temporal increase.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitude of the negative component in response to white test flashes as a function of time in the light. Measurements are from the same ERG’s as the previous figure. Each curve is labeled with the adaptation level in log ft-L.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amplitudes of the ERG components in response to a constant luminance red test flash at various adaptation levels in log ft-L. “DK” is dark adapted. Curves are labeled as A, X, and B waves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Amplitudes of the ERG components in response to a constant luminance white test flash at various adaptation level in log ft-L. “DK” is dark adapted. The curve labeled A is the negative component, curve labeled B is the positive component.