Abstract

The memory colors of ten familiar, naturally occurring objects have been determined. Fifty observers chose their memory colors from an array of 931 Munsell color chips. The variability of the judgments is shown and their means are compared with the average chromaticities of the corresponding natural objects. The ten mean memory colors were all significantly different from the natural colors. Each memory color tended to be more characteristic of the dominant chromatic attribute of the object in question; grass was more green, bricks more red, etc. In most cases, saturation and lightness increased in memory.

© 1960 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. K. Adams, Am. J. Psychol. 34, 359–407 (1923).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Newhall, Burnham, and Clark, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 43–56 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Kelly, Gibson, and Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 355–376 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Burnham, Evans, and Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 35–42 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, Illum. Eng. 43, 27–49 (1948).
    [PubMed]
  6. C. D. Hendley and S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 870–873 (1949).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Committee on Colorimetry of the Optical Society of America, The Science of Color (Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1953), p. 293.
  8. W. R. J. Brown, in D. L. MacAdam, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 42, 166–174 (1954).

1957 (2)

1954 (1)

W. R. J. Brown, in D. L. MacAdam, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 42, 166–174 (1954).

W. R. J. Brown, in D. L. MacAdam, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 42, 166–174 (1954).

1949 (1)

1948 (1)

G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, Illum. Eng. 43, 27–49 (1948).
[PubMed]

1943 (1)

1923 (1)

G. K. Adams, Am. J. Psychol. 34, 359–407 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

G. K. Adams, Am. J. Psychol. 34, 359–407 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Illum. Eng. (1)

G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, Illum. Eng. 43, 27–49 (1948).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. (1)

W. R. J. Brown, in D. L. MacAdam, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 42, 166–174 (1954).

Other (1)

Committee on Colorimetry of the Optical Society of America, The Science of Color (Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1953), p. 293.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Viewing booth showing observer examining array of color patches.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variability ellipse for the choice of red brick memory colors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variability ellipse for the choice of green grass memory colors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variability ellipse for the choice of dry grass memory colors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variability ellipse for the choice of blue sky memory colors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variability ellipse for the choice of flesh memory colors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variability ellipse for the choice of tanned flesh memory colors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variability ellipse for the choice of deciduous foliage memory colors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variability ellipse for the choice of coniferous foliage memory colors.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variability ellipse for the choice of inland soil memory colors.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variability ellipse for the choice of beach sand memory colors.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

CIE chromaticity diagram showing the relationships of average chromaticities of natural objects (tails of arrows) to the chromaticities of the mean memory colors (heads of arrows). The circles for dry grass and evergreens represent only the memory-color chromaticities.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of some of the memory colors determined in the present experiment to some of those previously determined by Newhall and Pugh. Apexes of the vectors represent the average chromaticities of the natural objects. A includes chromaticities of photographic and photomechanical reproductions of flesh.

Tables (3)

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Table I Statistics of the distributions of memory-color choices.

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Table II CIE Illuminant A tristimulus data for mean memory colors.

Tables Icon

Table III CIE Illuminant C tristimulus data for mean memory colors.

Equations (1)

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X c = 1.0972 X a - 0.4054 Y a + 0.3725 Z a - 0.0005. Y c = - 0.0296 X a + 0.9994 Y a + 0.2144 Z a - 0.0016. Z c = - 0.0776 X a + 0.3666 Y a + 2.1114 Z a + 0.0036.