Abstract

A digital computer was programed to calculate the concentrations required to produce a given transparent color by mixing soluble dyes. The computation is based on Beer’s law calculations at 65 wavelengths across the visible spectrum. The color to be formulated is specified in terms of CIE tristimulus values derived from instrumental measurement. The computer formulation technique was tested by making up to computed formulas a series of mixtures of dyes in a solvent and in an acrylic resin. The correspondence was good between the measured colors of the mixtures and those for which the formulations were calculated, as indicated by color differences averaging about 1 NBS unit (Adams chromatic value formula, normalized as in ASTM Method D 1482-57T).

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  1. D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science and Industry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952).
  2. R. H. Park and E. I. Stearns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 112 (1944).
  3. G. W. Haupt and F. L. Douglas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 698 (1947).
  4. Forrest, Kreidl, and Pett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 554 (1948).
  5. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 22 (1949).
  6. W. J. Foote, Paper Trade J. 109, T531 (1939).
  7. D. R. Duncan, J. Oil and Colour Chemists' Assoc. 32, 296 (1949).
  8. J. L. Saunderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 727 (1942).
  9. H. R. Davidson and H. Hemmendinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 281(A) (1958).
  10. A correction may be introduced for loss in transmittance by surface reflection or in a substrate, and the effect of sample thickness can be accounted for, by suitable modifications of Eq. (1). 70
  11. Billmeyer, Beasley, and Sheldon, "A color order system predicting constant hue" (paper in preparation).
  12. F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., "Use of a digital readout unit in converting spectrophotometric data to color coordinates," J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).
  13. All color differences referred to in this paper were calculated by the Adams chromatic value formula, normalized to the NBS unit by the factor adopted in ASTM Designation D 1482-57T. See also E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942); D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550 (1944).
  14. The samples referred to make up the full chroma transparent section of the Faber Birren Color Library in "Lucite" acrylic resin; see "Color styling in acrylic resins," F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., and I. K. de Blieu (paper in preparation).
  15. While the tolerance limits in this experiment were selected to be comparable to the probable error of color measurement,12 they can readily be made to correspond more nearly to steps of equal visual perception.

Adams, E. Q.

All color differences referred to in this paper were calculated by the Adams chromatic value formula, normalized to the NBS unit by the factor adopted in ASTM Designation D 1482-57T. See also E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942); D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550 (1944).

Billmeyer, Jr., F. W.

F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., "Use of a digital readout unit in converting spectrophotometric data to color coordinates," J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).

The samples referred to make up the full chroma transparent section of the Faber Birren Color Library in "Lucite" acrylic resin; see "Color styling in acrylic resins," F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., and I. K. de Blieu (paper in preparation).

Davidson, H. R.

H. R. Davidson and H. Hemmendinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 281(A) (1958).

de Blieu, I. K.

The samples referred to make up the full chroma transparent section of the Faber Birren Color Library in "Lucite" acrylic resin; see "Color styling in acrylic resins," F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., and I. K. de Blieu (paper in preparation).

Douglas, F. L.

G. W. Haupt and F. L. Douglas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 698 (1947).

Duncan, D. R.

D. R. Duncan, J. Oil and Colour Chemists' Assoc. 32, 296 (1949).

Foote, W. J.

W. J. Foote, Paper Trade J. 109, T531 (1939).

Haupt, G. W.

G. W. Haupt and F. L. Douglas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 698 (1947).

Hemmendinger, H.

H. R. Davidson and H. Hemmendinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 281(A) (1958).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science and Industry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 22 (1949).

Park, R. H.

R. H. Park and E. I. Stearns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 112 (1944).

Saunderson, J. L.

J. L. Saunderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 727 (1942).

Stearns, E. I.

R. H. Park and E. I. Stearns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 112 (1944).

Other (15)

D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science and Industry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952).

R. H. Park and E. I. Stearns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 112 (1944).

G. W. Haupt and F. L. Douglas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 698 (1947).

Forrest, Kreidl, and Pett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 554 (1948).

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 22 (1949).

W. J. Foote, Paper Trade J. 109, T531 (1939).

D. R. Duncan, J. Oil and Colour Chemists' Assoc. 32, 296 (1949).

J. L. Saunderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 727 (1942).

H. R. Davidson and H. Hemmendinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 281(A) (1958).

A correction may be introduced for loss in transmittance by surface reflection or in a substrate, and the effect of sample thickness can be accounted for, by suitable modifications of Eq. (1). 70

Billmeyer, Beasley, and Sheldon, "A color order system predicting constant hue" (paper in preparation).

F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., "Use of a digital readout unit in converting spectrophotometric data to color coordinates," J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).

All color differences referred to in this paper were calculated by the Adams chromatic value formula, normalized to the NBS unit by the factor adopted in ASTM Designation D 1482-57T. See also E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942); D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550 (1944).

The samples referred to make up the full chroma transparent section of the Faber Birren Color Library in "Lucite" acrylic resin; see "Color styling in acrylic resins," F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., and I. K. de Blieu (paper in preparation).

While the tolerance limits in this experiment were selected to be comparable to the probable error of color measurement,12 they can readily be made to correspond more nearly to steps of equal visual perception.

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