Abstract

Light sources for many problems in agriculture and industry require good color rendering; standards are needed for both special and general purpose lamps. Target standards are discussed, and color, relative spectral distributions, and lumen efficiency data are provided for typical incandescent and fluorescent lamps. Data for color samples calculated for triads of light sources studied by an I.E.S. Subcommittee on Color Rendition of Light Sources are used to demonstrate the comparative size and direction of color differences involved in common situations. Problems raised by chromatic adaptation are discussed, as are specifications and standards for sources used for color work in various specialized industries, and the progress being made by I.E.S. and CIE committees on color rendering.

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  1. P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (Philips Industries, Netherlands, 1947), English translation, 312 pp.
  2. B. T. Barnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 448–452 (1939).
  3. D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 1–9 (1939).
  4. D. Nickerson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 1233–1253 (1939).
  5. D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 36, 373–399 (1941).
  6. D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 43, 416–464 (1948).
  7. D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 458–466 (1948).
  8. K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).
  9. Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 74, 7, 2714 (1923).
  10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Handbook of Colorimetry, edited by Hardy (Technology Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936), 87 pp.
  11. "Recommended lighting practice for the color appraisal of reflection-type materials in graphic arts," published simultaneously by Illuminating Engineering Society Illum. Eng. 52, 493–500 (1957)], and by Research and Engineering Council of the Graphic Arts Industry, Washington, D. C., September, 1957, 11 pp.
  12. C. W. Jerome and D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 48, 259–267 (1953).
  13. Otto H. Schade, Sr., J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Eng. 67, 301–319 (1958).
  14. I.E.S. Lighting Handbook (Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, 1959), third edition.
  15. C. W. Jerome, Illum. Eng. 53, 41–46 (1958).
  16. Barr, Clark, and Hessler, Illum. Eng. 47, 649–656 (1952).
  17. D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550–570 (1944).
  18. D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 53, 77–90 (1958).
  19. Helson, Judd, and Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221–233 (1952).
  20. Helson, Judd, and Wilson, Illum. Eng. 51, 329–346 (1956).
  21. Burnham, Evans, and Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 597–605 (1952).
  22. Burnham, Evans, and Newhall, . Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 35–42 (1957).
  23. R. W. Burnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 254–263 (1959).
  24. D. L. MacAdam, J. Soc. Television Motion Picture Eng. 65, 455 (1956).
  25. Kelly, Gibson, and Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 355–376; J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (RP 1549) 31, 55–76 (1943).
  26. D. Nickerson and M. H. Wilson, Illum. Eng. 45, 507–517 (1950).

Barnes, B. T.

B. T. Barnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 448–452 (1939).

Bouma, P. J.

P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (Philips Industries, Netherlands, 1947), English translation, 312 pp.

Burnham, R. W.

R. W. Burnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 254–263 (1959).

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).

Jerome, C. W.

C. W. Jerome and D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 48, 259–267 (1953).

C. W. Jerome, Illum. Eng. 53, 41–46 (1958).

Judd, D. B.

C. W. Jerome and D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 48, 259–267 (1953).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, J. Soc. Television Motion Picture Eng. 65, 455 (1956).

Nickerson, D.

D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550–570 (1944).

D. Nickerson and M. H. Wilson, Illum. Eng. 45, 507–517 (1950).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 53, 77–90 (1958).

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 458–466 (1948).

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 1–9 (1939).

D. Nickerson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 1233–1253 (1939).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 36, 373–399 (1941).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 43, 416–464 (1948).

Schade, Sr., Otto H.

Otto H. Schade, Sr., J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Eng. 67, 301–319 (1958).

Stultz, K. F.

D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550–570 (1944).

Wilson, M. H.

D. Nickerson and M. H. Wilson, Illum. Eng. 45, 507–517 (1950).

Other (26)

P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (Philips Industries, Netherlands, 1947), English translation, 312 pp.

B. T. Barnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 448–452 (1939).

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 1–9 (1939).

D. Nickerson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 1233–1253 (1939).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 36, 373–399 (1941).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 43, 416–464 (1948).

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 458–466 (1948).

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 74, 7, 2714 (1923).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Handbook of Colorimetry, edited by Hardy (Technology Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936), 87 pp.

"Recommended lighting practice for the color appraisal of reflection-type materials in graphic arts," published simultaneously by Illuminating Engineering Society Illum. Eng. 52, 493–500 (1957)], and by Research and Engineering Council of the Graphic Arts Industry, Washington, D. C., September, 1957, 11 pp.

C. W. Jerome and D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 48, 259–267 (1953).

Otto H. Schade, Sr., J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Eng. 67, 301–319 (1958).

I.E.S. Lighting Handbook (Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, 1959), third edition.

C. W. Jerome, Illum. Eng. 53, 41–46 (1958).

Barr, Clark, and Hessler, Illum. Eng. 47, 649–656 (1952).

D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550–570 (1944).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 53, 77–90 (1958).

Helson, Judd, and Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221–233 (1952).

Helson, Judd, and Wilson, Illum. Eng. 51, 329–346 (1956).

Burnham, Evans, and Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 597–605 (1952).

Burnham, Evans, and Newhall, . Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 35–42 (1957).

R. W. Burnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 254–263 (1959).

D. L. MacAdam, J. Soc. Television Motion Picture Eng. 65, 455 (1956).

Kelly, Gibson, and Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 355–376; J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (RP 1549) 31, 55–76 (1943).

D. Nickerson and M. H. Wilson, Illum. Eng. 45, 507–517 (1950).

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