Abstract

Blue and yellow outer color zones on the lower vertical meridian were measured in a Goldmann spherical projection perimeter using three different techniques and four observers.

The limits of the color zones are not smooth but show irregular peaks and dips and do not have sharp cutoffs in sensitivity. The peaks and dips are reliable for any given observer, although they do not correspond between observers.

The method of constant stimuli, the method of limits, and the clinical one-directional technique were compared. The method of constant stimuli is the most reliable method and it gives the most information about the shape and size of the color gradient.

© 1959 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. Baird, Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 29 (1905).
  2. E. Hegg, Ann. Oculist (Paris) 109, (1893).
  3. Ole Bull, Arch. Ophthalmol. Graefe’s 27, 1 (1881).
  4. C. Hess, Arch. Ophthalmol. Graefe’s 35, 4 (1889).
  5. C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 6 (1920).
  6. L. S. MacMartin and F. L. Dimmick, Medical Research Laboratory Rept. No. 150, 8, (1949).
  7. H. A. Wentworth, Psych. Mono. XL, No. 3 (whole No.), 183 (1930).
  8. C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, J. Exptl. Psychol. II, 296 (1917).
  9. Leroy Pigg, dissertation (The Ohio State University, 1955).

1930 (1)

H. A. Wentworth, Psych. Mono. XL, No. 3 (whole No.), 183 (1930).

1920 (1)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 6 (1920).

1917 (1)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, J. Exptl. Psychol. II, 296 (1917).

1905 (1)

J. W. Baird, Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 29 (1905).

1893 (1)

E. Hegg, Ann. Oculist (Paris) 109, (1893).

1889 (1)

C. Hess, Arch. Ophthalmol. Graefe’s 35, 4 (1889).

1881 (1)

Ole Bull, Arch. Ophthalmol. Graefe’s 27, 1 (1881).

Baird, J. W.

J. W. Baird, Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 29 (1905).

Bull, Ole

Ole Bull, Arch. Ophthalmol. Graefe’s 27, 1 (1881).

Dimmick, F. L.

L. S. MacMartin and F. L. Dimmick, Medical Research Laboratory Rept. No. 150, 8, (1949).

Ferree, C. E.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 6 (1920).

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, J. Exptl. Psychol. II, 296 (1917).

Hegg, E.

E. Hegg, Ann. Oculist (Paris) 109, (1893).

Hess, C.

C. Hess, Arch. Ophthalmol. Graefe’s 35, 4 (1889).

MacMartin, L. S.

L. S. MacMartin and F. L. Dimmick, Medical Research Laboratory Rept. No. 150, 8, (1949).

Pigg, Leroy

Leroy Pigg, dissertation (The Ohio State University, 1955).

Rand, G.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 6 (1920).

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, J. Exptl. Psychol. II, 296 (1917).

Wentworth, H. A.

H. A. Wentworth, Psych. Mono. XL, No. 3 (whole No.), 183 (1930).

Ann. Oculist (Paris) (1)

E. Hegg, Ann. Oculist (Paris) 109, (1893).

Arch. Ophthalmol. Graefe’s (2)

Ole Bull, Arch. Ophthalmol. Graefe’s 27, 1 (1881).

C. Hess, Arch. Ophthalmol. Graefe’s 35, 4 (1889).

Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 29 (1)

J. W. Baird, Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 29 (1905).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, J. Exptl. Psychol. II, 296 (1917).

Psych. Mono. (1)

H. A. Wentworth, Psych. Mono. XL, No. 3 (whole No.), 183 (1930).

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 6 (1)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 6 (1920).

Other (2)

L. S. MacMartin and F. L. Dimmick, Medical Research Laboratory Rept. No. 150, 8, (1949).

Leroy Pigg, dissertation (The Ohio State University, 1955).

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Figures (4)

F. 1
F. 1

Frequency of seeing curves: four intensities of blue and yellow for (a) observer AR, and (b) observer ES.

F. 2
F. 2

Frequency of seeing curves: two intensities of blue and yellow for (a) observer JK, and (b) observer JB.

F. 3
F. 3

Percent distributions of terminal judgments by the clinical method on the brightest blue stimulus for two observers.

F. 4
F. 4

Comparison of results from three methods with the brightest blue stimulus for two observers. The averages for the method of limits and clinical technique are represented by the large vertical lines at the top of each section of the figure. The small vertical lines designate the means of the separate “out” and “in” series of the method of limits; the arrows specify the direction of the series. The dotted line running through the frequency of seeing curve for each O represents the running average curve, which is obtained by averaging the percent seen at any position with the percent above and below it. Since the resultant curves were still irregular, they were smoothed by hand, resulting in the large dashed lines, referred to as the “smoothed” running average curves. The small dashed lines represent the calculated 5% confidence limits above and below the smoothed trend line.

Tables (5)

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Table I Spectra brightness spot meter readings in ft-L.

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Table II Ranges, limens,a and standard deviations in degrees of blue and yellow color gradients obtained by two variations of the method of constant stimuli.

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Table III Individual observer correlations between the two brightest stimuli obtained by two variations of the method of constant stimuli.

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Table IV Thresholds and standard deviations in degrees for four intensities of blue and yellow obtained by the method of limits.

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Table V Means and standard deviations in degrees for four intensities of blue and yellow obtained by the clinical method.