Abstract

Monocular visual excitability was studied psychophysically by determining the threshold intensity for a small (40-min) brief (5-msec) “test” flash centered within a larger (3°) “conditioning” flash, both presented at 7° of arc in the temporal half-field. Interval between flashes was varied from -200 (test flash preceding onset of conditioning) to +1500 msec (test flash following), nine combinations of conditioning flash intensity and duration being used as parameters. For all combinations, threshold rose between -200 and -100 msec (before the start of the conditioning flash), reaching a maximum increment when the onsets of the two flashes were synchronized. When test was superimposed upon conditioning flash in time (positive intervals), threshold declined to approach an asymptote near the end of the latter flash. Following termination of the conditioning flash, threshold returned to resting level. The maximum rise in threshold, as well as the time taken to achieve an asymptote, varied with both intensity and duration of the conditioning flash. When a rough estimate of the photochemical contribution to these threshold changes was subtracted from the raw data, residual threshold increments were obtained and attributed to neural processes. On the basis of time course, it issuggested that these neural processes involve central (geniculo-calcarine) as well as peripheral (neuro-retinal) factors.

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  2. G. Wald, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 40 (November, Pt. II), 18 (1955).
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  6. Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).
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  10. S. W. Kuffler, J. Neurophysiol. 16, 37 (1953).
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  37. M. Monnier, J. Neurophysiol. 15, 469 (1952).

Baker, H. D.

H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 839 (1955).

Bartley, S. H.

G. A. Fry and S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 19, 351 (1936).

S. H. Bartley, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 8, 41 (1936).

Battersby, W. S.

W. S. Battersby and M. B. Bender, J. Comp. and Physiol. Psychol. 51, 411 (1958).

W. S. Battersby, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 59 (1951).

Beitel, Jr., R. J.

R. J. Beitel, Jr., J. Gen. Psychol. 14, 31 (1936).

Bender, M. B.

W. S. Battersby and M. B. Bender, J. Comp. and Physiol. Psychol. 51, 411 (1958).

Bishop, G. H.

G. H. Bishop, Cold Spring Harbor Symposium Quant. Biol. 4, 305 (1936).

M. H. Clare and G. H. Bishop, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 4, 311 (1952).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and G. Kandel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 275 (1957).

R. M. Boynton and M. H. Triedman, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 125 (1953).

Broca, A.

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. physiol. et pathol. gén. 4, 632 (1902).

Bush, W. R.

W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1047 (1955).

Chang, H. T.

H. T. Chang, J. Neurophysiol. 13, 235 (1950).

Clare, M. H.

M. H. Clare and G. H. Bishop, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 4, 311 (1952).

Clark, A. B.

G. Wald and A. B. Clark, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93 (1937).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B134, 283 (1947).

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Physiol. 108, 701 (1934).

G. A. Fry and S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 19, 351 (1936).

Gastaut, H.

H. Gastaut, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 1, 205 (1949).

H. Gastaut and J. Hunter, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 2, 263 (1950).

Graham, C. H.

L. A. Riggs and C. H. Graham, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 16, 15 (1940).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, New York, 1947).

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930).

Harper, P.

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930).

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline and F. Ratliff, J. Gen. Physiol. 40, 357 (1957).

H. K. Hartline and P. R. McDonald, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 30, 225 (1947).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, Physiol. Revs. 17, 239 (1937).

Hunter, J.

H. Gastaut and J. Hunter, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 2, 263 (1950).

Kandel, G.

R. M. Boynton and G. Kandel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 275 (1957).

Kruger, L.

L. I. Malis and L. Kruger, J. Neurophysiol. 19, 172 (1956).

Kuffler, S. W.

S. W. Kuffler, J. Neurophysiol. 16, 37 (1953).

Lohman, W.

W. Lohman, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. der Sinnesorgane. Abt. II. Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 290 (1907).

Malis, L. I.

L. I. Malis and L. Kruger, J. Neurophysiol. 19, 172 (1956).

Marshall, W. H.

W. H. Marshall, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 277 (1949).

McDonald, P. R.

H. K. Hartline and P. R. McDonald, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 30, 225 (1947).

Monnier, M.

M. Monnier, J. Neurophysiol. 15, 469 (1952).

Ratliff, F.

H. K. Hartline and F. Ratliff, J. Gen. Physiol. 40, 357 (1957).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and C. H. Graham, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 16, 15 (1940).

L. A. Riggs, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 15, 273 (1940).

Sherrington, C. S.

C. S. Sherrington, Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 26 (1904).

Sulzer, D.

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. physiol. et pathol. gén. 4, 632 (1902).

Triedman, M. H.

R. M. Boynton and M. H. Triedman, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 125 (1953).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 40 (November, Pt. II), 18 (1955).

G. Wald and A. B. Clark, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93 (1937).

Other (37)

S. Hecht, Physiol. Revs. 17, 239 (1937).

G. Wald, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 40 (November, Pt. II), 18 (1955).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, New York, 1947).

Granit, Munsterhjelm, and Zewi, J. Physiol. 96, 31 (1939).

H. K. Hartline and P. R. McDonald, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 30, 225 (1947).

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

W. Lohman, Z. Psychol. u. Physiol. der Sinnesorgane. Abt. II. Z. Sinnesphysiol. 41, 290 (1907).

G. Wald and A. B. Clark, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 93 (1937).

H. K. Hartline and F. Ratliff, J. Gen. Physiol. 40, 357 (1957).

S. W. Kuffler, J. Neurophysiol. 16, 37 (1953).

R. J. Beitel, Jr., J. Gen. Psychol. 14, 31 (1936).

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, J. physiol. et pathol. gén. 4, 632 (1902).

G. A. Fry, Am. J. Physiol. 108, 701 (1934).

G. A. Fry and S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 19, 351 (1936).

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930).

S. H. Bartley, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 8, 41 (1936).

H. T. Chang, J. Neurophysiol. 13, 235 (1950).

M. H. Clare and G. H. Bishop, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 4, 311 (1952).

H. Gastaut and J. Hunter, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 2, 263 (1950).

Jasper, Naquet, and King, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 7, 99 (1955).

L. I. Malis and L. Kruger, J. Neurophysiol. 19, 172 (1956).

W. H. Marshall, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 277 (1949).

Marshall, Talbot, and Ades, J. Neurophysiol. 6, 1 (1943).

G. H. Bishop, Cold Spring Harbor Symposium Quant. Biol. 4, 305 (1936).

W. S. Battersby, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 59 (1951).

W. S. Battersby and M. B. Bender, J. Comp. and Physiol. Psychol. 51, 411 (1958).

C. S. Sherrington, Brit. J. Psychol. 1, 26 (1904).

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B134, 283 (1947).

H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 839 (1955).

R. M. Boynton and M. H. Triedman, J. Exptl. Psychol. 46, 125 (1953).

R. M. Boynton and G. Kandel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 275 (1957).

W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1047 (1955).

Wagman, Waldman, Naidoff, Feinschil, and Cahan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 60 (1954).

L. A. Riggs, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 15, 273 (1940).

L. A. Riggs and C. H. Graham, J. Cellular Comp. Physiol. 16, 15 (1940).

H. Gastaut, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 1, 205 (1949).

M. Monnier, J. Neurophysiol. 15, 469 (1952).

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