Abstract

The effects of small, involuntary eye movements have been counteracted by an optical system that fixes a test image at a given point on the retina. This causes the test object to disappear. In the present experiment the relative amount of image motion has been varied over a wide range, with special attention to the condition of nearly complete absence of image motion. The disappearance is greatest for low contrast images with minimal amounts of motion.

© 1959 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Riggs, Ratliff, Cornsweet, and Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. W. Ditchburn and D. H. Fender, Optica Acta (Paris) 2, 128 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. W. Ditchburn, Research (London) 9, 466 (1956).
  5. J. Krauskopf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 740 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. N. Cornsweet and L. A. Riggs, paper delivered at the Eastern Psychological Association (1954).
  8. G. M. Byram, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 571 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 690 (1940).
  10. J. Krauskopf and L. A. Riggs, Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).

1956 (2)

R. W. Ditchburn, Research (London) 9, 466 (1956).

J. Krauskopf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 740 (1956).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and D. H. Fender, Optica Acta (Paris) 2, 128 (1955).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

1952 (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).
[Crossref]

1944 (1)

1940 (1)

H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 690 (1940).

Byram, G. M.

Cornsweet,

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet and L. A. Riggs, paper delivered at the Eastern Psychological Association (1954).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Research (London) 9, 466 (1956).

R. W. Ditchburn and D. H. Fender, Optica Acta (Paris) 2, 128 (1955).
[Crossref]

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fender, D. H.

R. W. Ditchburn and D. H. Fender, Optica Acta (Paris) 2, 128 (1955).
[Crossref]

Ginsborg, B. L.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 690 (1940).

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 740 (1956).
[Crossref]

J. Krauskopf and L. A. Riggs, Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).

Ratliff,

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).
[Crossref]

Riggs,

Riggs, L. A.

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).
[Crossref]

T. N. Cornsweet and L. A. Riggs, paper delivered at the Eastern Psychological Association (1954).

J. Krauskopf and L. A. Riggs, Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

H. K. Hartline, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 690 (1940).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Nature (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, Nature 170, 36 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optica Acta (Paris) (1)

R. W. Ditchburn and D. H. Fender, Optica Acta (Paris) 2, 128 (1955).
[Crossref]

Research (London) (1)

R. W. Ditchburn, Research (London) 9, 466 (1956).

Other (2)

T. N. Cornsweet and L. A. Riggs, paper delivered at the Eastern Psychological Association (1954).

J. Krauskopf and L. A. Riggs, Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

F. 1
F. 1

Diagram of apparatus, not drawn to scale.

F. 2
F. 2

Diagram of the annulus and the test object which was composed of two semicircles differing in luminance.

F. 3
F. 3

Mean percent time the test object was seen as a function of r, relative error of stabilization. Each mean represents six runs obtained over three days. Right eye was used. The curves for luminance ratios 1.25, 1.63, and 2.00 are for experiment A, while the curve for luminance ratio 4.16 is for experiment B, part 3. For observers LAR and SÜT.

F. 4
F. 4

Mean percent time the test object was seen as a function of r, relative error of stabilization. Each mean represents six runs obtained over three days. Right eye was used. One curve is for experiment B, part 1, in which the steps in r are finer than in experiment A. The other curve is for part 2 of experiment B in which still finer steps of r were used. For observers LAR and SÜT.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Results of subsidiary experiments C and D. Body of the table represents the mean percent time the object was seen for various values of r, relative error of stabilization. Each mean was for ten 30-sec exposures of the test object. In experiment D the retinal image was stabilized in the vertical as well as the horizontal plane of movement. It was not possible to adapt the lens of SÜT for this purpose.