Abstract

An optical system is described in which ultraviolet light from a suitable source is dispersed by a grating monochromator and focused on a specimen. Fluorescent light from the specimen passes through a second grating monochromator and is detected by a photomulitplier tube. The specimen is placed in a stand which rests on a kinematic trolley, by means of which the specimen is brought into focus and which allows stands with reference markings, an MgO surface, or a cold cell to be used.

The optical system is calibrated photometrically by means of a standarized tungsten-quartz lamp. The spectral sensitivity characteristics of the detecting photomultiplier, together with its associated monochromator and mirrors, are corrected by means of a cam driven in synchronism with the wavelenght drive drive of the detecting monochromator.

In order to cancel fluctuations in the exciting light source a fraction of the light emerging from the source monochromator is focused on to a second photomultiplier, whose output is used to operate a servo system. The recorded spectrum is thus a measure of the ratio of fluorescent to exciting light. The currents from the photomultipliers are amplified by dc amplifiers with silicon diode modulators, which are described.

© 1959 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Kelley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 289 (1958). Klick, Schumacher, and Stokes, Rev. Sci. Instr. 22; 776 (1951).H. Mitsuhashi, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 4, 61 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  2. Bowman, Caulfield, and Udenfriend, Science 122, 32 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. E. Hardy, J. Electrochem. Soc. 91, 221 (1947).F. J. Studer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 467 (1948). Parsons, Martin, and Roberto, J. Electrochem. Soc. 97, 41 (1950).V. K. Zworykin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 84 (1939).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. W. King, Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (Alder-maston, Berkshire, England), Report No. 0-12/54 (March, 1954).Bull. Photoelectric Spectrom. Group, No. 9, 227 (1956).
  5. M. N. Alentsev, Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret Fiz.21, 133 (1951), translated by G. Belkov and issued by the National Research Council (Canada) as NRC-TT 433.M. N. Alentsev and L. A. Vinokurov, Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Ser. Fiz. 15, 725 (1951).M. D. Borisov and A. S. Davydov, Trudy Inst. Fiz. Akad. Nauk Ukr. S.S.S.R. No. 7, 97 (1956).M. D. Borisov and V. N. Vishnevskii, Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Ser. Fiz. 20, 502 (1956), translated by Columbia Technical TranslationsE. J. Bowen, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A154, 349 (1936).L. S. Forster and R. Livingstone, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1315 (1952).M. D. Galanin and A. P. Grishin, Soviet Phys. JETP 3, 32 (1956). Gilmore, Gibson, and McClure, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 829 (1952).W. H. Melhuish, New Zealand J. Sci. Technol. 37B, 142 (1955).F. I. Polovikov, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R.71, 453 (1950), translated by C. F. Ravilious and issued by the Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) as NRL 337.J. Tregellas-Williams, J. Electrochem. Soc. 105, 173 (1958).G. Weber and F W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 646 (1957).G. T. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 241 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 419 (1951).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. Stair and W. O. Smith, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards,  30, 449 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. C. Barnes, J. Sci. Instr. 33, 494 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. F. Moody, Proc. Natl. Electronics Conf. 11, 441 (1955).

1958 (1)

F. Kelley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 289 (1958). Klick, Schumacher, and Stokes, Rev. Sci. Instr. 22; 776 (1951).H. Mitsuhashi, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 4, 61 (1955).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

J. C. Barnes, J. Sci. Instr. 33, 494 (1956).
[Crossref]

1955 (2)

N. F. Moody, Proc. Natl. Electronics Conf. 11, 441 (1955).

Bowman, Caulfield, and Udenfriend, Science 122, 32 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

1947 (1)

A. E. Hardy, J. Electrochem. Soc. 91, 221 (1947).F. J. Studer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 467 (1948). Parsons, Martin, and Roberto, J. Electrochem. Soc. 97, 41 (1950).V. K. Zworykin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 84 (1939).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1943 (1)

R. Stair and W. O. Smith, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards,  30, 449 (1943).
[Crossref]

Alentsev, M. N.

M. N. Alentsev, Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret Fiz.21, 133 (1951), translated by G. Belkov and issued by the National Research Council (Canada) as NRC-TT 433.M. N. Alentsev and L. A. Vinokurov, Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Ser. Fiz. 15, 725 (1951).M. D. Borisov and A. S. Davydov, Trudy Inst. Fiz. Akad. Nauk Ukr. S.S.S.R. No. 7, 97 (1956).M. D. Borisov and V. N. Vishnevskii, Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Ser. Fiz. 20, 502 (1956), translated by Columbia Technical TranslationsE. J. Bowen, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A154, 349 (1936).L. S. Forster and R. Livingstone, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1315 (1952).M. D. Galanin and A. P. Grishin, Soviet Phys. JETP 3, 32 (1956). Gilmore, Gibson, and McClure, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 829 (1952).W. H. Melhuish, New Zealand J. Sci. Technol. 37B, 142 (1955).F. I. Polovikov, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R.71, 453 (1950), translated by C. F. Ravilious and issued by the Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) as NRL 337.J. Tregellas-Williams, J. Electrochem. Soc. 105, 173 (1958).G. Weber and F W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 646 (1957).G. T. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 241 (1955).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J. C.

J. C. Barnes, J. Sci. Instr. 33, 494 (1956).
[Crossref]

Bowman,

Bowman, Caulfield, and Udenfriend, Science 122, 32 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caulfield,

Bowman, Caulfield, and Udenfriend, Science 122, 32 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardy, A. E.

A. E. Hardy, J. Electrochem. Soc. 91, 221 (1947).F. J. Studer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 467 (1948). Parsons, Martin, and Roberto, J. Electrochem. Soc. 97, 41 (1950).V. K. Zworykin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 84 (1939).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelley, F.

F. Kelley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 289 (1958). Klick, Schumacher, and Stokes, Rev. Sci. Instr. 22; 776 (1951).H. Mitsuhashi, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 4, 61 (1955).
[Crossref]

King, G. W.

G. W. King, Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (Alder-maston, Berkshire, England), Report No. 0-12/54 (March, 1954).Bull. Photoelectric Spectrom. Group, No. 9, 227 (1956).

Middleton, W. E. K.

Moody, N. F.

N. F. Moody, Proc. Natl. Electronics Conf. 11, 441 (1955).

Sanders, C. L.

Smith, W. O.

R. Stair and W. O. Smith, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards,  30, 449 (1943).
[Crossref]

Stair, R.

R. Stair and W. O. Smith, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards,  30, 449 (1943).
[Crossref]

Udenfriend,

Bowman, Caulfield, and Udenfriend, Science 122, 32 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

A. E. Hardy, J. Electrochem. Soc. 91, 221 (1947).F. J. Studer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 467 (1948). Parsons, Martin, and Roberto, J. Electrochem. Soc. 97, 41 (1950).V. K. Zworykin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 84 (1939).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

F. Kelley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 289 (1958). Klick, Schumacher, and Stokes, Rev. Sci. Instr. 22; 776 (1951).H. Mitsuhashi, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 4, 61 (1955).
[Crossref]

W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 419 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (1)

R. Stair and W. O. Smith, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards,  30, 449 (1943).
[Crossref]

J. Sci. Instr. (1)

J. C. Barnes, J. Sci. Instr. 33, 494 (1956).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Electronics Conf. (1)

N. F. Moody, Proc. Natl. Electronics Conf. 11, 441 (1955).

Science (1)

Bowman, Caulfield, and Udenfriend, Science 122, 32 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. W. King, Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (Alder-maston, Berkshire, England), Report No. 0-12/54 (March, 1954).Bull. Photoelectric Spectrom. Group, No. 9, 227 (1956).

M. N. Alentsev, Zhur. Eksptl. i Teoret Fiz.21, 133 (1951), translated by G. Belkov and issued by the National Research Council (Canada) as NRC-TT 433.M. N. Alentsev and L. A. Vinokurov, Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Ser. Fiz. 15, 725 (1951).M. D. Borisov and A. S. Davydov, Trudy Inst. Fiz. Akad. Nauk Ukr. S.S.S.R. No. 7, 97 (1956).M. D. Borisov and V. N. Vishnevskii, Izvest. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Ser. Fiz. 20, 502 (1956), translated by Columbia Technical TranslationsE. J. Bowen, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A154, 349 (1936).L. S. Forster and R. Livingstone, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1315 (1952).M. D. Galanin and A. P. Grishin, Soviet Phys. JETP 3, 32 (1956). Gilmore, Gibson, and McClure, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 829 (1952).W. H. Melhuish, New Zealand J. Sci. Technol. 37B, 142 (1955).F. I. Polovikov, Doklady Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R.71, 453 (1950), translated by C. F. Ravilious and issued by the Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) as NRL 337.J. Tregellas-Williams, J. Electrochem. Soc. 105, 173 (1958).G. Weber and F W. J. Teale, Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 646 (1957).G. T. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68, 241 (1955).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

F. 1
F. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical and mechanical systems.

F. 2
F. 2

Diagram showing an exploded view of the kinematic trolley.

F. 3
F. 3

Diagram of the optical system for monitoring the intensity of the exciting light source.

F. 4
F. 4

Diagram showing an exploded view of the mechanism of the cam system.

F. 5
F. 5

Block diagram of the electrical system. Mechanical connections are indicated by dotted lines.

F. 6
F. 6

Circuit diagram of the cam amplifier. Asterisk indicates precision resistor.