Abstract

The detective quantum efficiency for foveal vision is computed from the flash perception data of Blackwell and McCready. The detective quantum efficiency is identical with the concept of quantum efficiency introduced by Rose in 1946, and is defined as the square of the ratio of the smallest possible threshold to the observed threshold, where the smallest possible threshold is set by the statistical fluctuations in the number of the background photons entering the eye. The computed values of the detective quantum efficiency <i>Q</i> are tabulated in Table V, and depend on the target diameter α, on the light pulse duration <i>T</i>, and on the background luminance <i>B</i>. The maximum values of <i>Q</i> (with the respect to variation of α and <i>T</i>) range from about 0.25% to about 1.0 %over the range from 0.1 to 100 ft-L, with the maximum value occurring at about 1.0 ft-L. The computed values of <i>Q</i> are free of the questionable assumptions previously used by Rose and by Jones regarding integration time and threshold signal-to-noise ratio.

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  1. R. B. Barnes and M. Czerny, Z. Physik 79, 436–449 (1932).
  2. Hecht, Shlaer, and Pirenne, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).
  3. Albert Rose, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 30, 293–300 (1942).
  4. Hessel de Vries, Physica 10, 553–564 (1943).
  5. Albert Rose, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 47, 273–294 (1946).
  6. Albert Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196–208 (1948).
  7. Albert Rose, Advances in Electronics 1, 131–166 (1948).
  8. H. B. Barlow, "Retinal noise and absolute threshold," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634–639 (1956).
  9. H. B. Barlow, "Increment thresholds at low intensities considered as signal/noise discriminations," J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469–488 (1957).
  10. E. Baumgardt, "Sehmechanismus und Quantenstruktur des Lichtes," Naturwissenschaften 39, 388–393 (1952).
  11. Hartline, Milne, and Wagman, "Fluctuation of response of single visual sense cells," Federation Proc. 6, 124 (1947).
  12. M. H. Pirenne, "Physiological mechanisms of vision and the quantum nature of light," Biol. Revs. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 31, 194–241 (1956).
  13. W. P. Tanner, Jr. and J. A. Swets, "The human use of information, Part I," Trans. IRE Prof. Group on Information Theory PGIT-4, 213–221 (1954).
  14. H. R. Blackwell and D. W. McCready, Jr. (to be published). The writer is indebted to Dr. Blackwell for making these data available prior to publication. Some of these data are published in graphical form by H. R. Blackwell, Illum. Eng. 47, 602–609 (1952).
  15. R. Clark Jones, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 47, 100–108 (1957).
  16. T. C. Fry, Probability and its Engineering Uses (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1929), pp. 221–223.
  17. T. G. Birdsall and W. W. Peterson, in Quarterly Progress Report No. 10, University of Michigan, Electronic Defense Group (April, 1954).
  18. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).
  19. Prentice Reeves, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 35–43 (1920).
  20. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319–329 (1944).
  21. R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 879–890 (1947).
  22. R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 327–356 (1949).
  23. R. Clark Jones, Advances in Electronics 5, 1–96 (1953).
  24. Albert Rose, Advances in Biol. and Med. Phys. 5, 211–242 (1957).
  25. David Middleton, Trans Inst. Radio Engrs. IT-3, 86–121 (1957).

1957

H. B. Barlow, "Increment thresholds at low intensities considered as signal/noise discriminations," J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469–488 (1957).

1956

H. B. Barlow, "Retinal noise and absolute threshold," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634–639 (1956).

M. H. Pirenne, "Physiological mechanisms of vision and the quantum nature of light," Biol. Revs. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 31, 194–241 (1956).

1952

E. Baumgardt, "Sehmechanismus und Quantenstruktur des Lichtes," Naturwissenschaften 39, 388–393 (1952).

1947

Hartline, Milne, and Wagman, "Fluctuation of response of single visual sense cells," Federation Proc. 6, 124 (1947).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, "Increment thresholds at low intensities considered as signal/noise discriminations," J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469–488 (1957).

H. B. Barlow, "Retinal noise and absolute threshold," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 634–639 (1956).

Barnes, R. B.

R. B. Barnes and M. Czerny, Z. Physik 79, 436–449 (1932).

Baumgardt, E.

E. Baumgardt, "Sehmechanismus und Quantenstruktur des Lichtes," Naturwissenschaften 39, 388–393 (1952).

Birdsall, T. G.

T. G. Birdsall and W. W. Peterson, in Quarterly Progress Report No. 10, University of Michigan, Electronic Defense Group (April, 1954).

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).

H. R. Blackwell and D. W. McCready, Jr. (to be published). The writer is indebted to Dr. Blackwell for making these data available prior to publication. Some of these data are published in graphical form by H. R. Blackwell, Illum. Eng. 47, 602–609 (1952).

Czerny, M.

R. B. Barnes and M. Czerny, Z. Physik 79, 436–449 (1932).

de Vries, Hessel

Hessel de Vries, Physica 10, 553–564 (1943).

Fry, T. C.

T. C. Fry, Probability and its Engineering Uses (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1929), pp. 221–223.

Jones, R. Clark

R. Clark Jones, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 47, 100–108 (1957).

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 879–890 (1947).

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 327–356 (1949).

R. Clark Jones, Advances in Electronics 5, 1–96 (1953).

McCready, Jr., D. W.

H. R. Blackwell and D. W. McCready, Jr. (to be published). The writer is indebted to Dr. Blackwell for making these data available prior to publication. Some of these data are published in graphical form by H. R. Blackwell, Illum. Eng. 47, 602–609 (1952).

Middleton, David

David Middleton, Trans Inst. Radio Engrs. IT-3, 86–121 (1957).

Moon, P.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319–329 (1944).

Peterson, W. W.

T. G. Birdsall and W. W. Peterson, in Quarterly Progress Report No. 10, University of Michigan, Electronic Defense Group (April, 1954).

Pirenne, M. H.

M. H. Pirenne, "Physiological mechanisms of vision and the quantum nature of light," Biol. Revs. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 31, 194–241 (1956).

Reeves, Prentice

Prentice Reeves, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 35–43 (1920).

Rose, Albert

Albert Rose, Advances in Biol. and Med. Phys. 5, 211–242 (1957).

Albert Rose, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 47, 273–294 (1946).

Albert Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196–208 (1948).

Albert Rose, Advances in Electronics 1, 131–166 (1948).

Albert Rose, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 30, 293–300 (1942).

Spencer, D. E.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319–329 (1944).

Swets, J. A.

W. P. Tanner, Jr. and J. A. Swets, "The human use of information, Part I," Trans. IRE Prof. Group on Information Theory PGIT-4, 213–221 (1954).

Tanner, Jr., W. P.

W. P. Tanner, Jr. and J. A. Swets, "The human use of information, Part I," Trans. IRE Prof. Group on Information Theory PGIT-4, 213–221 (1954).

Biol. Revs. Cambridge Phil. Soc.

M. H. Pirenne, "Physiological mechanisms of vision and the quantum nature of light," Biol. Revs. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 31, 194–241 (1956).

Federation Proc.

Hartline, Milne, and Wagman, "Fluctuation of response of single visual sense cells," Federation Proc. 6, 124 (1947).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol.

H. B. Barlow, "Increment thresholds at low intensities considered as signal/noise discriminations," J. Physiol. (London) 136, 469–488 (1957).

Naturwissenschaften

E. Baumgardt, "Sehmechanismus und Quantenstruktur des Lichtes," Naturwissenschaften 39, 388–393 (1952).

Other

R. B. Barnes and M. Czerny, Z. Physik 79, 436–449 (1932).

Hecht, Shlaer, and Pirenne, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819–840 (1942).

Albert Rose, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 30, 293–300 (1942).

Hessel de Vries, Physica 10, 553–564 (1943).

Albert Rose, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 47, 273–294 (1946).

Albert Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196–208 (1948).

Albert Rose, Advances in Electronics 1, 131–166 (1948).

W. P. Tanner, Jr. and J. A. Swets, "The human use of information, Part I," Trans. IRE Prof. Group on Information Theory PGIT-4, 213–221 (1954).

H. R. Blackwell and D. W. McCready, Jr. (to be published). The writer is indebted to Dr. Blackwell for making these data available prior to publication. Some of these data are published in graphical form by H. R. Blackwell, Illum. Eng. 47, 602–609 (1952).

R. Clark Jones, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 47, 100–108 (1957).

T. C. Fry, Probability and its Engineering Uses (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1929), pp. 221–223.

T. G. Birdsall and W. W. Peterson, in Quarterly Progress Report No. 10, University of Michigan, Electronic Defense Group (April, 1954).

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624–643 (1946).

Prentice Reeves, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 35–43 (1920).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 319–329 (1944).

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 879–890 (1947).

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 327–356 (1949).

R. Clark Jones, Advances in Electronics 5, 1–96 (1953).

Albert Rose, Advances in Biol. and Med. Phys. 5, 211–242 (1957).

David Middleton, Trans Inst. Radio Engrs. IT-3, 86–121 (1957).

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