Abstract

Light scattering from small particles in liquids and transparent solids may lead to a loss in optical clarity. If the scattering particles are in the micron size range, the scattering is confined to small angles with respect to the direction of the incident light. The resulting phenomenon does not correlate with integrating sphere haze. Examples of this type of optical defect are occasionally observed in plastic sheet or film samples.

A photometer is described for the quantitative measurement of this type of light scattering. It measures scattered light photoelectrically at a 10° angle with an angular resolution of 1°. It is suitable for plant control applications as well as research and development. Visual estimates of optical clarity correlate well with instrumental low-angle light scattering.

© 1959 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Standard Method of Test for Haze and Luminous Transmission of Transparent Plastics (American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia), designation: D 1003-52.
  2. A. C. Webber, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 785 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. K. Sloan, J. Phys. Chem. 59, 834 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. H. Aughey and F. J. Baum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 833 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A commercial version of the LAS photometer is made by the Manufacturers Engineering and Equipment Corporation, York and Sunset Lane, Hatboro, Pennsylvania, with the trade-name “Scattermaster” Model 1.
  6. Other apparatus for measuring light scattering at low angles is described in reference 4 and by Plaza, Norris, and Stein, J. Polymer Sci. 24, 455 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. K. Carpenter and W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. W. Billmeyer and C. B. deThan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4763 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  9. The LAS of a liquid is a practical measure of its scattering due to dust and dirt.
  10. J. H. Skinkle and W. W. Platt, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 31, 537 (1942).
  11. W. L. Gore, Statistical Methods for Chemical Experimentation (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York and London, 1953).
  12. D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York1952), p. 225.

1957 (2)

Other apparatus for measuring light scattering at low angles is described in reference 4 and by Plaza, Norris, and Stein, J. Polymer Sci. 24, 455 (1957).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Webber, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 785 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1955 (3)

C. K. Sloan, J. Phys. Chem. 59, 834 (1955).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Carpenter and W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1955).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Billmeyer and C. B. deThan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4763 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

1942 (1)

J. H. Skinkle and W. W. Platt, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 31, 537 (1942).

Aughey, W. H.

Baum, F. J.

Billmeyer, F. W.

F. W. Billmeyer and C. B. deThan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4763 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, D. K.

D. K. Carpenter and W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1955).
[CrossRef]

deThan, C. B.

F. W. Billmeyer and C. B. deThan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4763 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Gore, W. L.

W. L. Gore, Statistical Methods for Chemical Experimentation (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York and London, 1953).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York1952), p. 225.

Krigbaum, W. R.

D. K. Carpenter and W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Norris,

Other apparatus for measuring light scattering at low angles is described in reference 4 and by Plaza, Norris, and Stein, J. Polymer Sci. 24, 455 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Platt, W. W.

J. H. Skinkle and W. W. Platt, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 31, 537 (1942).

Plaza,

Other apparatus for measuring light scattering at low angles is described in reference 4 and by Plaza, Norris, and Stein, J. Polymer Sci. 24, 455 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Skinkle, J. H.

J. H. Skinkle and W. W. Platt, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 31, 537 (1942).

Sloan, C. K.

C. K. Sloan, J. Phys. Chem. 59, 834 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Stein,

Other apparatus for measuring light scattering at low angles is described in reference 4 and by Plaza, Norris, and Stein, J. Polymer Sci. 24, 455 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Webber, A. C.

Am. Dyestuff Reptr. (1)

J. H. Skinkle and W. W. Platt, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 31, 537 (1942).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

F. W. Billmeyer and C. B. deThan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4763 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. K. Carpenter and W. R. Krigbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1041 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

C. K. Sloan, J. Phys. Chem. 59, 834 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Polymer Sci. (1)

Other apparatus for measuring light scattering at low angles is described in reference 4 and by Plaza, Norris, and Stein, J. Polymer Sci. 24, 455 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

Standard Method of Test for Haze and Luminous Transmission of Transparent Plastics (American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia), designation: D 1003-52.

The LAS of a liquid is a practical measure of its scattering due to dust and dirt.

A commercial version of the LAS photometer is made by the Manufacturers Engineering and Equipment Corporation, York and Sunset Lane, Hatboro, Pennsylvania, with the trade-name “Scattermaster” Model 1.

W. L. Gore, Statistical Methods for Chemical Experimentation (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York and London, 1953).

D. B. Judd, Color in Business, Science, and Industry (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York1952), p. 225.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sloan plot of the small-angle light scattering of plastic sheet samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The LAS low-angle light scattering photometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

View of interior arrangement of the LAS photometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the LAS photometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation between visual rating and LAS for visual test standards.