Abstract

A combination discharge, obtained by superimposing a low-voltage ac arc with condensed high-voltage discharges, has been investigated with respect to its applicability in spectrochemical analysis of metals. The stability of this combination discharge is comparable to that of a spark discharge and it is considerably more intense than the spark discharge alone. The vaporization of the electrode material can be controlled to some extent independently of excitation. There are indications that this may contribute to an understanding of the influence of extraneous elements.

© 1959 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Wa. Gerlach and We. Gerlach, Clinical and Pathological Applications of Spectrum Analysis (Adam Hilger, Ltd., London, 1934).
  2. K. Pfeilsticker, Z. Electrochem. 43, 719 (1937); Spectrochim. Acta 1, 424 (1940).
  3. A simple and efficient expedient to make the amount of the energy discharged independent of the shape of the electrodes and of the analytical gap was introduced by S. M. Raiskij [J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 9, 1719 (1939); Bull. acad. sci. U.R.S.S. Sér. phys. 4, No. 1 (1940)]. For a description and evaluation of the Raiskij scheme see also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 221 (1945). The analytical gap is bridged by an induction coil, or by a high resistance; the peak voltage, and therefore the energy of the condenser discharges, is determined by a stationary auxiliary gap.
  4. Owing to the glass optics of the camera and to the sensitivity range of the film, the photographed light is restricted in these pictures to the 4000–4400A section of the spectrum.
  5. J. H. Enns and R. A. Wolfe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 298 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  6. It is interesting to note that while the effect of silicon on nickel and chromium determinations is also absent when the combination discharge is produced in an argon atmosphere, the effect of sulfur on manganese determination is very pronounced. Apparently, this is due to the fact that a triggered arc is not readily formed in argon, as can be seen from the appearance of the electrodes after the discharge has been applied.
  7. See, for instance, L. N. Filimonov, Zavodskaya Lab. 15, 1178 (1948).
  8. For some recent results, see J. Jenkins and T. B. Jones, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 663 (1957).
    [CrossRef]

1957 (1)

For some recent results, see J. Jenkins and T. B. Jones, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 663 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

1948 (1)

See, for instance, L. N. Filimonov, Zavodskaya Lab. 15, 1178 (1948).

1939 (1)

A simple and efficient expedient to make the amount of the energy discharged independent of the shape of the electrodes and of the analytical gap was introduced by S. M. Raiskij [J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 9, 1719 (1939); Bull. acad. sci. U.R.S.S. Sér. phys. 4, No. 1 (1940)]. For a description and evaluation of the Raiskij scheme see also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 221 (1945). The analytical gap is bridged by an induction coil, or by a high resistance; the peak voltage, and therefore the energy of the condenser discharges, is determined by a stationary auxiliary gap.

1937 (1)

K. Pfeilsticker, Z. Electrochem. 43, 719 (1937); Spectrochim. Acta 1, 424 (1940).

Enns, J. H.

Filimonov, L. N.

See, for instance, L. N. Filimonov, Zavodskaya Lab. 15, 1178 (1948).

Gerlach, Wa.

Wa. Gerlach and We. Gerlach, Clinical and Pathological Applications of Spectrum Analysis (Adam Hilger, Ltd., London, 1934).

Gerlach, We.

Wa. Gerlach and We. Gerlach, Clinical and Pathological Applications of Spectrum Analysis (Adam Hilger, Ltd., London, 1934).

Jenkins, J.

For some recent results, see J. Jenkins and T. B. Jones, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 663 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. B.

For some recent results, see J. Jenkins and T. B. Jones, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 663 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Pfeilsticker, K.

K. Pfeilsticker, Z. Electrochem. 43, 719 (1937); Spectrochim. Acta 1, 424 (1940).

Raiskij, S. M.

A simple and efficient expedient to make the amount of the energy discharged independent of the shape of the electrodes and of the analytical gap was introduced by S. M. Raiskij [J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 9, 1719 (1939); Bull. acad. sci. U.R.S.S. Sér. phys. 4, No. 1 (1940)]. For a description and evaluation of the Raiskij scheme see also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 221 (1945). The analytical gap is bridged by an induction coil, or by a high resistance; the peak voltage, and therefore the energy of the condenser discharges, is determined by a stationary auxiliary gap.

Wolfe, R. A.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

For some recent results, see J. Jenkins and T. B. Jones, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 663 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. (1)

A simple and efficient expedient to make the amount of the energy discharged independent of the shape of the electrodes and of the analytical gap was introduced by S. M. Raiskij [J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 9, 1719 (1939); Bull. acad. sci. U.R.S.S. Sér. phys. 4, No. 1 (1940)]. For a description and evaluation of the Raiskij scheme see also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 221 (1945). The analytical gap is bridged by an induction coil, or by a high resistance; the peak voltage, and therefore the energy of the condenser discharges, is determined by a stationary auxiliary gap.

Z. Electrochem. (1)

K. Pfeilsticker, Z. Electrochem. 43, 719 (1937); Spectrochim. Acta 1, 424 (1940).

Zavodskaya Lab. (1)

See, for instance, L. N. Filimonov, Zavodskaya Lab. 15, 1178 (1948).

Other (3)

Wa. Gerlach and We. Gerlach, Clinical and Pathological Applications of Spectrum Analysis (Adam Hilger, Ltd., London, 1934).

Owing to the glass optics of the camera and to the sensitivity range of the film, the photographed light is restricted in these pictures to the 4000–4400A section of the spectrum.

It is interesting to note that while the effect of silicon on nickel and chromium determinations is also absent when the combination discharge is produced in an argon atmosphere, the effect of sulfur on manganese determination is very pronounced. Apparently, this is due to the fact that a triggered arc is not readily formed in argon, as can be seen from the appearance of the electrodes after the discharge has been applied.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrograms of steel made with (a) low-voltage ac arc, 2 amp, initiated by a spark; (b) spark-4 discharges per half-cycle; (c) ac arc as in (a) and spark as in (b), exposures made successively one after another, that is, the spectrograms of (a) and (b) superimposed; (d) the combination discharge, that is ac arc, initiated and superimposed by condenser discharges; ac arc and condenser discharges run concurrently.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rotating-camera photographs of discharge. (a) One-half cycle of spark discharge (4 discharges per half-cycle). (b) One-half cycle of combination discharge (4 discharges per half-cycle, 2 amp arc current).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified electrical-circuit diagram of combination source. T1, T2—variable autotransformer, C1—high-voltage condenser, G2—analytical gap, R2—20 Ω, L2—rf choke=450 mh, T3—high-voltage transformer, G1—auxiliary gap, R1—106 Ω, L1—25 μh, and F1—line filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change of intensity with number of discharges per half-cycle and capacitance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Change of intensity with arc current and capacitance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of S on Mn determination with spark and combination source. Curve I, Spark calibration prepared with low-sulfur samples; △ indicates results obtained with high-sulfur samples. Curve II, Combination source calibration prepared with low-sulfur samples; ○ indicates results obtained for high-sulfur samples.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Results of a series of 20 consecutive determinations made with a sample prepared by adding chromium to electrolytic iron.

Tables Icon

Table II Results of a series of 20 consecutive determination made with a sample of “T-1” constructional alloy steel (C-0.11%, P-0.010%, S-0.035%, Mn-0.94%).

Tables Icon

Table III Results of a series of 20 consecutive determinations made with a sample of low-alloy steel (C-0.12%, P-0.011%, S-0.025%, Mn-0.042%).

Tables Icon

Table IV Results of a series of 10 consecutive determinations made with a sample of low-alloy steel using an ignited ac arc, (10 amp).