Abstract

The role of spectroscopy in thermonuclear research is reviewed briefly. The various techniques of observation and interpretation of spectra and some of the limitations are illustrated by appropriate tables and figures. It is shown that the spectroscopist has available a unique, multipurpose, and yet unperturbing probe which can contribute significantly to the interpretation of the pressing problems besetting thermonuclear scientists.

© 1959 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

J. R. McNally, "Errata," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1494_1-1494 (1964)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-54-12-1494_1

References

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  1. H. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 55, 434 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  2. Nucleonics,  13, 23 (1955).
  3. Nucleonics,  14, 42 (1956).
  4. E. Teller, Nuclear Sci. and Eng. 1, 313 (1956).
  5. R. F. Post, Revs. Modern Phys. 28, 338 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. Kurchatov, Nucleonics 14, 36 (1956).
  7. Cross sections from Arnold, Phillips, Sawyer, Stovall, and Tuck, Phys. Rev. 93, 483 (1954); energy release computed from atomic mass data of A. H. Wapstra, Physica 21, 367 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radioisotopes catalog and price list (1956).
  9. Classification Guide for Use in Civilian Application Program, OC-Doc-54, p. 10, (March, 1957). Also available as gas (approximately $1.00 per liter) from Liquid Carbonic Corporation (formerly Stuart Oxygen), 767 Industrial Road, San Carlos, California.
  10. H. Alfven, Cosmical Electrodynamics (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1950).
  11. V. G. Keller and R. E. Meyerott, (1952). See also (1952).
  12. H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 389 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. E. Ives and G. R. Stilwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 215 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Otting, Physik. Z. 40, 681 (1939).
  15. S. E. Frisch and Yu. M. Kagen, Zhur. Eksptl. i. Teoret. Fiz. 17, 577 (1947); also, personal communication from K. W. Meissner on smaller shifts observed in dc operated Kr84 and Kr86 standard light sources (1957).
  16. E. Fermi, Phys. Rev. 75, 1169 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. R. McNally and M. R. Skidmore, Paper F3, Spectroscopy Symposium, Argonne National Laboratory (February, 1956); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 863 (1957). Section IX is an expanded version of the latter.
  18. See, for example, A. C. G. Mitchell and M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1934); see, also, E. Hinnov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 151 (1957), and E. Hinnov and H. Kohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 156 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1950).
  20. R. W. Wood, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 97, 455 (1920).
    [Crossref]
  21. N. Tsi-Ze and C. Shang-Yi, Phys. Rev. 51, 567 (1937); H. Margenau and W. W. Watson, Revs. Modern Phys. 8, 22 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. R. Inglis and E. Teller, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 98, 694 (1938); also Astrophys. J. 90, 439 (1939).
  23. F. L. Mohler, Astrophys. J. 90, 429 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. I. Sobelman, Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 54, 550 (1954).
  25. A. C. Kolb, , Office of Scientific Research, U. S. Air Force (1957).
  26. R. G. Breene, , available from U. S. Department of Commerce (1955); also, Revs. Modern Phys. 29, 94 (1957).
  27. L. H. Aller, The Atmospheres of the Sun and Stars (Ronald Press Company, New York, 1953).

1957 (1)

Classification Guide for Use in Civilian Application Program, OC-Doc-54, p. 10, (March, 1957). Also available as gas (approximately $1.00 per liter) from Liquid Carbonic Corporation (formerly Stuart Oxygen), 767 Industrial Road, San Carlos, California.

1956 (5)

Nucleonics,  14, 42 (1956).

E. Teller, Nuclear Sci. and Eng. 1, 313 (1956).

R. F. Post, Revs. Modern Phys. 28, 338 (1956).
[Crossref]

I. Kurchatov, Nucleonics 14, 36 (1956).

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radioisotopes catalog and price list (1956).

1955 (1)

Nucleonics,  13, 23 (1955).

1954 (2)

Cross sections from Arnold, Phillips, Sawyer, Stovall, and Tuck, Phys. Rev. 93, 483 (1954); energy release computed from atomic mass data of A. H. Wapstra, Physica 21, 367 (1955).
[Crossref]

I. I. Sobelman, Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 54, 550 (1954).

1949 (1)

E. Fermi, Phys. Rev. 75, 1169 (1949).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

S. E. Frisch and Yu. M. Kagen, Zhur. Eksptl. i. Teoret. Fiz. 17, 577 (1947); also, personal communication from K. W. Meissner on smaller shifts observed in dc operated Kr84 and Kr86 standard light sources (1957).

1939 (2)

G. Otting, Physik. Z. 40, 681 (1939).

F. L. Mohler, Astrophys. J. 90, 429 (1939).
[Crossref]

1938 (3)

H. E. Ives and G. R. Stilwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 215 (1938).
[Crossref]

H. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 55, 434 (1938).
[Crossref]

D. R. Inglis and E. Teller, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 98, 694 (1938); also Astrophys. J. 90, 439 (1939).

1937 (2)

N. Tsi-Ze and C. Shang-Yi, Phys. Rev. 51, 567 (1937); H. Margenau and W. W. Watson, Revs. Modern Phys. 8, 22 (1936).
[Crossref]

H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 389 (1937).
[Crossref]

1920 (1)

R. W. Wood, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 97, 455 (1920).
[Crossref]

Alfven, H.

H. Alfven, Cosmical Electrodynamics (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1950).

Aller, L. H.

L. H. Aller, The Atmospheres of the Sun and Stars (Ronald Press Company, New York, 1953).

Arnold,

Cross sections from Arnold, Phillips, Sawyer, Stovall, and Tuck, Phys. Rev. 93, 483 (1954); energy release computed from atomic mass data of A. H. Wapstra, Physica 21, 367 (1955).
[Crossref]

Bethe, H.

H. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 55, 434 (1938).
[Crossref]

Breene, R. G.

R. G. Breene, , available from U. S. Department of Commerce (1955); also, Revs. Modern Phys. 29, 94 (1957).

Fermi, E.

E. Fermi, Phys. Rev. 75, 1169 (1949).
[Crossref]

Frisch, S. E.

S. E. Frisch and Yu. M. Kagen, Zhur. Eksptl. i. Teoret. Fiz. 17, 577 (1947); also, personal communication from K. W. Meissner on smaller shifts observed in dc operated Kr84 and Kr86 standard light sources (1957).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1950).

Inglis, D. R.

D. R. Inglis and E. Teller, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 98, 694 (1938); also Astrophys. J. 90, 439 (1939).

Ives, H. E.

Kagen, Yu. M.

S. E. Frisch and Yu. M. Kagen, Zhur. Eksptl. i. Teoret. Fiz. 17, 577 (1947); also, personal communication from K. W. Meissner on smaller shifts observed in dc operated Kr84 and Kr86 standard light sources (1957).

Keller, V. G.

V. G. Keller and R. E. Meyerott, (1952). See also (1952).

Kolb, A. C.

A. C. Kolb, , Office of Scientific Research, U. S. Air Force (1957).

Kurchatov, I.

I. Kurchatov, Nucleonics 14, 36 (1956).

McNally, J. R.

J. R. McNally and M. R. Skidmore, Paper F3, Spectroscopy Symposium, Argonne National Laboratory (February, 1956); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 863 (1957). Section IX is an expanded version of the latter.

Meyerott, R. E.

V. G. Keller and R. E. Meyerott, (1952). See also (1952).

Mitchell, A. C. G.

See, for example, A. C. G. Mitchell and M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1934); see, also, E. Hinnov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 151 (1957), and E. Hinnov and H. Kohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 156 (1957).
[Crossref]

Mohler, F. L.

F. L. Mohler, Astrophys. J. 90, 429 (1939).
[Crossref]

Otting, G.

G. Otting, Physik. Z. 40, 681 (1939).

Phillips,

Cross sections from Arnold, Phillips, Sawyer, Stovall, and Tuck, Phys. Rev. 93, 483 (1954); energy release computed from atomic mass data of A. H. Wapstra, Physica 21, 367 (1955).
[Crossref]

Post, R. F.

R. F. Post, Revs. Modern Phys. 28, 338 (1956).
[Crossref]

Sawyer,

Cross sections from Arnold, Phillips, Sawyer, Stovall, and Tuck, Phys. Rev. 93, 483 (1954); energy release computed from atomic mass data of A. H. Wapstra, Physica 21, 367 (1955).
[Crossref]

Shang-Yi, C.

N. Tsi-Ze and C. Shang-Yi, Phys. Rev. 51, 567 (1937); H. Margenau and W. W. Watson, Revs. Modern Phys. 8, 22 (1936).
[Crossref]

Skidmore, M. R.

J. R. McNally and M. R. Skidmore, Paper F3, Spectroscopy Symposium, Argonne National Laboratory (February, 1956); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 863 (1957). Section IX is an expanded version of the latter.

Sobelman, I. I.

I. I. Sobelman, Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 54, 550 (1954).

Stilwell, G. R.

Stovall,

Cross sections from Arnold, Phillips, Sawyer, Stovall, and Tuck, Phys. Rev. 93, 483 (1954); energy release computed from atomic mass data of A. H. Wapstra, Physica 21, 367 (1955).
[Crossref]

Teller, E.

E. Teller, Nuclear Sci. and Eng. 1, 313 (1956).

D. R. Inglis and E. Teller, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 98, 694 (1938); also Astrophys. J. 90, 439 (1939).

Tsi-Ze, N.

N. Tsi-Ze and C. Shang-Yi, Phys. Rev. 51, 567 (1937); H. Margenau and W. W. Watson, Revs. Modern Phys. 8, 22 (1936).
[Crossref]

Tuck,

Cross sections from Arnold, Phillips, Sawyer, Stovall, and Tuck, Phys. Rev. 93, 483 (1954); energy release computed from atomic mass data of A. H. Wapstra, Physica 21, 367 (1955).
[Crossref]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 97, 455 (1920).
[Crossref]

Zemansky, M. W.

See, for example, A. C. G. Mitchell and M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1934); see, also, E. Hinnov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 151 (1957), and E. Hinnov and H. Kohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 156 (1957).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (1)

F. L. Mohler, Astrophys. J. 90, 429 (1939).
[Crossref]

Classification Guide for Use in Civilian Application Program, OC-Doc-54 (1)

Classification Guide for Use in Civilian Application Program, OC-Doc-54, p. 10, (March, 1957). Also available as gas (approximately $1.00 per liter) from Liquid Carbonic Corporation (formerly Stuart Oxygen), 767 Industrial Road, San Carlos, California.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. (1)

D. R. Inglis and E. Teller, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 98, 694 (1938); also Astrophys. J. 90, 439 (1939).

Nuclear Sci. and Eng. (1)

E. Teller, Nuclear Sci. and Eng. 1, 313 (1956).

Nucleonics (3)

Nucleonics,  13, 23 (1955).

Nucleonics,  14, 42 (1956).

I. Kurchatov, Nucleonics 14, 36 (1956).

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radioisotopes catalog and price list (1)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radioisotopes catalog and price list (1956).

Phys. Rev. (4)

H. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 55, 434 (1938).
[Crossref]

Cross sections from Arnold, Phillips, Sawyer, Stovall, and Tuck, Phys. Rev. 93, 483 (1954); energy release computed from atomic mass data of A. H. Wapstra, Physica 21, 367 (1955).
[Crossref]

E. Fermi, Phys. Rev. 75, 1169 (1949).
[Crossref]

N. Tsi-Ze and C. Shang-Yi, Phys. Rev. 51, 567 (1937); H. Margenau and W. W. Watson, Revs. Modern Phys. 8, 22 (1936).
[Crossref]

Physik. Z. (1)

G. Otting, Physik. Z. 40, 681 (1939).

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

R. W. Wood, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 97, 455 (1920).
[Crossref]

Revs. Modern Phys. (1)

R. F. Post, Revs. Modern Phys. 28, 338 (1956).
[Crossref]

Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk (1)

I. I. Sobelman, Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 54, 550 (1954).

Zhur. Eksptl. i. Teoret. Fiz. (1)

S. E. Frisch and Yu. M. Kagen, Zhur. Eksptl. i. Teoret. Fiz. 17, 577 (1947); also, personal communication from K. W. Meissner on smaller shifts observed in dc operated Kr84 and Kr86 standard light sources (1957).

Other (8)

J. R. McNally and M. R. Skidmore, Paper F3, Spectroscopy Symposium, Argonne National Laboratory (February, 1956); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 863 (1957). Section IX is an expanded version of the latter.

See, for example, A. C. G. Mitchell and M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1934); see, also, E. Hinnov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 151 (1957), and E. Hinnov and H. Kohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 156 (1957).
[Crossref]

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1950).

A. C. Kolb, , Office of Scientific Research, U. S. Air Force (1957).

R. G. Breene, , available from U. S. Department of Commerce (1955); also, Revs. Modern Phys. 29, 94 (1957).

L. H. Aller, The Atmospheres of the Sun and Stars (Ronald Press Company, New York, 1953).

H. Alfven, Cosmical Electrodynamics (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1950).

V. G. Keller and R. E. Meyerott, (1952). See also (1952).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Doppler shifts due to ordered motion of radiating ions in the ORNL electromagnetic separator ion source arcs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the modified ion source of the ORNL Arc Research Facility.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of the arc in the modified ion source of the ORNL Arc Research Facility.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Slant line effect in the spectrum of hydrogen.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of doppler slant effect in ionic spectrum lines, showing dependence on magnetic field.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Self-absorption in the hyperfine components of the 2536-A resonance line of mercury.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table I Light element fusion reactions, energy release, and cross sections.

Tables Icon

Table II Spectroscopic sensitivity of plasma properties.

Tables Icon

Table III Electron energies required to excite various states of oxygen.

Tables Icon

Table IV Electron energies required to excite various states of carbon.

Tables Icon

Table V Limiting excitation states and lines of hydrogen vs electron densities.

Tables Icon

Table VI Approximate line widths from Stark broadening by random fields (F in kv/cm).

Tables Icon

Table VII Hydrogen Hβ line broadening vs ion density.

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ē = 3 2 k T ,
λ e ξ T M ( m / M ) 1 2 .
Δ λ = 0.72 × 10 - 6 λ S ( T / M ) 1 2 ,
I = I max exp [ - β ( Δ λ / λ ) ] , where β is M c 2 2 k T .
Δ λ = λ S ( v S c cos ϕ + v S 2 2 c 2 ) .
2 195 000 m λ 2 204 000.
E = v d c H ,
I ν = I 0 ν e - k ν x ,
k ν ν = λ 2 g 2 N 1 8 π g 1 τ ( 1 - g 1 g 2 N 2 N 1 ) ,
k ν d ν = π e 2 N 1 f m c .
I abs = I 0 π e 2 N 1 f x m c ,
r = 0.528 n 2 × 10 - 8 cm .
N e = 10 23 / n m 7.5
P = 1.3 × 10 - 32 n i 2 V ,
I = I 0 N v σ r π [ ( ν - ν 0 - N v σ i ) 2 + ( N v σ r ) 2 ] 2 ,
Δ T ( cm - 1 ) = 25 × 10 - 5 F ,
Δ σ = Δ W h c = m J g e H 4 π m c 2 ,
Δ σ = 4.67 × 10 - 5 m J g H .