Abstract

An experimental procedure is described for producing thin films of binary alloys by evaporation and condensation in a vacuum. The components of the desired alloy are evaporated successively and the alloy is then produced by diffusion. A feature of the method is the use of a rotating modulator located between the vapor source and the substrate which controls the relative thickness of the deposit. During the first evaporation a uniform gradient of one metal is deposited. The substrate is then rotated 180° in its own plane and a gradient of another material is superposed. This results in a sample of approximately uniform thickness with pure metal components at the ends and with a composition gradient in between. The procedure is easily extended to permit the production in one evaporation of several samples having different thicknesses. An annealing treatment is usually helpful in promoting diffusion. Representative results on several alloys are described.

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  1. L. G. Schulz, Advances in Phys. 6, 102 (1957).
  2. L. Harris and B. M. Siegel, J. Appl. Phys. 19, 739 (1948).
  3. H. Koenig, Reichsber. Physik 1, 7 (1944).
  4. M. Goldsztaub and P. Michel, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 232, 1843 (1951).
  5. H. S. Coleman and H. L. Yeagley, Trans. Am. Soc. Metal, 31, 105 (1943).
  6. L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1956).
  7. L. G. Schulz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 540 (1954).
  8. R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1951).
  9. M. Hansen, Der Aufbau der Zweistofflegierungen (Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1943).

Coleman, H. S.

H. S. Coleman and H. L. Yeagley, Trans. Am. Soc. Metal, 31, 105 (1943).

Goldsztaub, M.

M. Goldsztaub and P. Michel, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 232, 1843 (1951).

Hansen, M.

M. Hansen, Der Aufbau der Zweistofflegierungen (Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1943).

Harris, L.

L. Harris and B. M. Siegel, J. Appl. Phys. 19, 739 (1948).

Holland, L.

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1956).

Koenig, H.

H. Koenig, Reichsber. Physik 1, 7 (1944).

Michel, P.

M. Goldsztaub and P. Michel, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 232, 1843 (1951).

Schulz, L. G.

L. G. Schulz, Advances in Phys. 6, 102 (1957).

L. G. Schulz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 540 (1954).

Siegel, B. M.

L. Harris and B. M. Siegel, J. Appl. Phys. 19, 739 (1948).

Wyckoff, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1951).

Yeagley, H. L.

H. S. Coleman and H. L. Yeagley, Trans. Am. Soc. Metal, 31, 105 (1943).

Other (9)

L. G. Schulz, Advances in Phys. 6, 102 (1957).

L. Harris and B. M. Siegel, J. Appl. Phys. 19, 739 (1948).

H. Koenig, Reichsber. Physik 1, 7 (1944).

M. Goldsztaub and P. Michel, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 232, 1843 (1951).

H. S. Coleman and H. L. Yeagley, Trans. Am. Soc. Metal, 31, 105 (1943).

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1956).

L. G. Schulz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 540 (1954).

R. W. G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1951).

M. Hansen, Der Aufbau der Zweistofflegierungen (Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1943).

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