Abstract

The human electroretinogram was elicited by test flashes which followed 2.5 sec after the termination of a colored adaptation. Typically, the electroretinogram consisted of a negative wave followed by a double positive deflection. The negative wave gave evidence of mixed photopic-scotopic activity. The first positive wave showed high red photopic sensitivity when elicited by long wavelength test flashes and scotopic sensitivity when elicited by short wavelength test flashes. The second positive wave was scotopic. When mixed photopic-scotopic activity was present, the negative wave showed a higher proportion of photopic activity than did the positive wave. Blue adaptation favored photopic response while red adaptation permitted an increase in scotopic sensitivity.

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  1. J. C. Armington and W. R. Biersdorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 393 (1956).
  2. E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954).
  3. J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779 (1954).
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  8. G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
  9. R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).
  10. G. H. Crampton and J. C. Armington, Am. J. Physiol. 181, 47 (1955).
  11. G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Physiol. 189, 517 (1957).
  12. A. Wirth and B. Zetterstrom, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 257 (1954).
  13. J. C. Armington and G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 72 (1958).
  14. R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisins of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).
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  25. W. A. Cobb and H. B. Morton, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 36P (1954).
  26. H. Bornschein and G. Goodman, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 431 (1957).
  27. J. Heck and I. Rendahl, Acta Physiol. Scand. 39, 167 (1957).
  28. E. P. Johnson, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 565 (1958).
  29. E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945).
  30. K. Motokawa and T. Mita, Tohoko J. Exptl. Med. 42, 114 (1942).
  31. Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol. (London) 118, 289 (1952).

Adrian, E. D.

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945).

Armington, J. C.

J. C. Armington and W. R. Biersdorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 393 (1956).

J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779 (1954).

W. R. Biersdorf and J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 208 (1957).

J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).

G. H. Crampton and J. C. Armington, Am. J. Physiol. 181, 47 (1955).

J. C. Armington and G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 72 (1958).

Biersdorf, W. R.

W. R. Biersdorf and J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 208 (1957).

J. C. Armington and W. R. Biersdorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 393 (1956).

Bornschein, H.

H. Bornschein and G. Goodman, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 431 (1957).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 172 (1956).

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).

Cobb, W. A.

W. A. Cobb and H. B. Morton, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 36P (1954).

Cornsweet, T. N.

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954).

Crampton, G. H.

G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Physiol. 189, 517 (1957).

J. C. Armington and G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 72 (1958).

G. H. Crampton and J. C. Armington, Am. J. Physiol. 181, 47 (1955).

Dodt, E.

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Nature 181, 286 (1958).

E. Dodt, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 87 (1958).

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger's 268, 435 (1959).

Goodman, G.

H. Bornschein and G. Goodman, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 431 (1957).

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisins of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

Heck, J.

J. Heck and I. Rendahl, Acta Physiol. Scand. 39, 167 (1957).

Hsia, Y.

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).

Johnson, E. P.

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954).

E. P. Johnson, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 565 (1958).

MacNichol, E. J.

E. J. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

Mita, T.

K. Motokawa and T. Mita, Tohoko J. Exptl. Med. 42, 114 (1942).

Morton, H. B.

W. A. Cobb and H. B. Morton, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 36P (1954).

Motokawa, K.

K. Motokawa and T. Mita, Tohoko J. Exptl. Med. 42, 114 (1942).

Pitt, F. H. C.

F. H. C. Pitt, Spec. Rept. Ser. Med. Research Council, London 200 (1935).

Rendahl, I.

J. Heck and I. Rendahl, Acta Physiol. Scand. 39, 167 (1957).

Riggs, L. A.

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 291 (1958).

Smith, T.

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 56, 251 (1944).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 56, 251 (1944).

Svaetichin, G.

E. J. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

Thiede, F. C.

J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779 (1954).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).

Walther, J. B.

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger's 268, 435 (1959).

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Nature 181, 286 (1958).

Wirth, A.

A. Wirth and B. Zetterstrom, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 257 (1954).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Nornal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).

Zetterstrom, B.

A. Wirth and B. Zetterstrom, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 257 (1954).

Other (31)

J. C. Armington and W. R. Biersdorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 393 (1956).

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954).

J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779 (1954).

W. R. Biersdorf and J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 208 (1957).

J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).

F. H. C. Pitt, Spec. Rept. Ser. Med. Research Council, London 200 (1935).

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 172 (1956).

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).

G. H. Crampton and J. C. Armington, Am. J. Physiol. 181, 47 (1955).

G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Physiol. 189, 517 (1957).

A. Wirth and B. Zetterstrom, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 257 (1954).

J. C. Armington and G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 72 (1958).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisins of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 56, 251 (1944).

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Nature 181, 286 (1958).

R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 442 (1953).

Dodt, Copenhaver, and Gunkel, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pilüger's 267, 497 (1958).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Nornal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).

E. J. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).

W. A. H. Rushton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 291 (1958).

E. Dodt, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 87 (1958).

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger's 268, 435 (1959).

W. A. Cobb and H. B. Morton, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 36P (1954).

H. Bornschein and G. Goodman, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 431 (1957).

J. Heck and I. Rendahl, Acta Physiol. Scand. 39, 167 (1957).

E. P. Johnson, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 565 (1958).

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945).

K. Motokawa and T. Mita, Tohoko J. Exptl. Med. 42, 114 (1942).

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol. (London) 118, 289 (1952).

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