Abstract

The human electroretinogram was elicited by test flashes which followed 2.5 sec after the termination of a colored adaptation. Typically, the electroretinogram consisted of a negative wave followed by a double positive deflection. The negative wave gave evidence of mixed photopic-scotopic activity. The first positive wave showed high red photopic sensitivity when elicited by long wavelength test flashes and scotopic sensitivity when elicited by short wavelength test flashes. The second positive wave was scotopic. When mixed photopic-scotopic activity was present, the negative wave showed a higher proportion of photopic activity than did the positive wave. Blue adaptation favored photopic response while red adaptation permitted an increase in scotopic sensitivity.

© 1959 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. W. R. Biersdorf and J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 208 (1957).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. H. C. Pitt, Spec. Rept. Ser. Med. Research Council, London200 (1935).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. E. Dodt, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 87 (1958).
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    [Crossref]
  25. W. A. Cobb and H. B. Morton, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 36P (1954).
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    [Crossref]
  27. J. Heck and I. Rendahl, Acta Physiol. Scand. 39, 167 (1957).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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1959 (1)

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s 268, 435 (1959).
[Crossref]

1958 (8)

J. C. Armington and G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 72 (1958).

E. P. Johnson, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 565 (1958).
[Crossref]

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Nature 181, 286 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dodt, Copenhaver, and Gunkel, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s 267, 497 (1958).
[Crossref]

E. J. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 291 (1958).
[Crossref]

E. Dodt, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 87 (1958).

1957 (4)

G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Physiol. 189, 517 (1957).
[PubMed]

H. Bornschein and G. Goodman, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 431 (1957).
[Crossref]

J. Heck and I. Rendahl, Acta Physiol. Scand. 39, 167 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Biersdorf and J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 208 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1956 (2)

1955 (2)

J. C. Armington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1058 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Crampton and J. C. Armington, Am. J. Physiol. 181, 47 (1955).
[PubMed]

1954 (4)

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Armington and F. C. Thiede, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 779 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Cobb and H. B. Morton, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 36P (1954).

A. Wirth and B. Zetterstrom, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 257 (1954).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

1952 (1)

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol. (London) 118, 289 (1952).

1951 (1)

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).
[Crossref]

1945 (2)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945).

1944 (1)

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 56, 251 (1944).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

K. Motokawa and T. Mita, Tohoko J. Exptl. Med. 42, 114 (1942).
[Crossref]

Adrian, E. D.

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945).

Armington,

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol. (London) 118, 289 (1952).

Armington, J. C.

Biersdorf, W. R.

Bornschein, H.

H. Bornschein and G. Goodman, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 431 (1957).
[Crossref]

Boynton, R. M.

Cobb, W. A.

W. A. Cobb and H. B. Morton, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 36P (1954).

Copenhaver,

Dodt, Copenhaver, and Gunkel, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s 267, 497 (1958).
[Crossref]

Cornsweet, T. N.

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crampton, G. H.

J. C. Armington and G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 72 (1958).

G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Physiol. 189, 517 (1957).
[PubMed]

G. H. Crampton and J. C. Armington, Am. J. Physiol. 181, 47 (1955).
[PubMed]

Dodt,

Dodt, Copenhaver, and Gunkel, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s 267, 497 (1958).
[Crossref]

Dodt, E.

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s 268, 435 (1959).
[Crossref]

E. Dodt, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 87 (1958).

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Nature 181, 286 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodman, G.

H. Bornschein and G. Goodman, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 431 (1957).
[Crossref]

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Granit, R.

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

Gunkel,

Dodt, Copenhaver, and Gunkel, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s 267, 497 (1958).
[Crossref]

Heck, J.

J. Heck and I. Rendahl, Acta Physiol. Scand. 39, 167 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsia, Y.

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson,

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol. (London) 118, 289 (1952).

Johnson, E. P.

E. P. Johnson, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 565 (1958).
[Crossref]

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacNichol, E. J.

E. J. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

Mita, T.

K. Motokawa and T. Mita, Tohoko J. Exptl. Med. 42, 114 (1942).
[Crossref]

Morton, H. B.

W. A. Cobb and H. B. Morton, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 36P (1954).

Motokawa, K.

K. Motokawa and T. Mita, Tohoko J. Exptl. Med. 42, 114 (1942).
[Crossref]

Pitt, F. H. C.

F. H. C. Pitt, Spec. Rept. Ser. Med. Research Council, London200 (1935).

Rendahl, I.

J. Heck and I. Rendahl, Acta Physiol. Scand. 39, 167 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riggs,

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol. (London) 118, 289 (1952).

Riggs, L. A.

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).
[Crossref]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 291 (1958).
[Crossref]

Smith, T.

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 56, 251 (1944).
[Crossref]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 56, 251 (1944).
[Crossref]

Svaetichin, G.

E. J. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

Thiede, F. C.

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, J. B.

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s 268, 435 (1959).
[Crossref]

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Nature 181, 286 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirth, A.

A. Wirth and B. Zetterstrom, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 257 (1954).
[Crossref]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).

Zetterstrom, B.

A. Wirth and B. Zetterstrom, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 257 (1954).
[Crossref]

A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

H. Bornschein and G. Goodman, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 58, 431 (1957).
[Crossref]

E. P. Johnson, A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 60, 565 (1958).
[Crossref]

Acta Physiol. Scand. (1)

J. Heck and I. Rendahl, Acta Physiol. Scand. 39, 167 (1957).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

E. Dodt, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 87 (1958).

E. J. MacNichol and G. Svaetichin, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 26 (1958).

J. C. Armington and G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 72 (1958).

Am. J. Physiol. (2)

G. H. Crampton and J. C. Armington, Am. J. Physiol. 181, 47 (1955).
[PubMed]

G. H. Crampton, Am. J. Physiol. 189, 517 (1957).
[PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

W. A. H. Rushton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 74, 291 (1958).
[Crossref]

Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s (2)

Dodt, Copenhaver, and Gunkel, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s 267, 497 (1958).
[Crossref]

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger’s 268, 435 (1959).
[Crossref]

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Wirth and B. Zetterstrom, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 257 (1954).
[Crossref]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

R. M. Boynton and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 42, 217 (1951).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Physiol. (London) (3)

W. A. Cobb and H. B. Morton, J. Physiol. (London) 123, 36P (1954).

Armington, Johnson, and Riggs, J. Physiol. (London) 118, 289 (1952).

E. D. Adrian, J. Physiol. (London) 104, 84 (1945).

Nature (2)

E. P. Johnson and T. N. Cornsweet, Nature 174, 614 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Dodt and J. B. Walther, Nature 181, 286 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

W. S. Stiles and T. Smith, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 56, 251 (1944).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tohoko J. Exptl. Med. (1)

K. Motokawa and T. Mita, Tohoko J. Exptl. Med. 42, 114 (1942).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Kimpton, London, 1946).

F. H. C. Pitt, Spec. Rept. Ser. Med. Research Council, London200 (1935).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1947).

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Figures (10)

F. 1
F. 1

Diagram of the stimulator apparatus. The letters identify the following components: Z zirconium arc lamp, L lens, HF heat filter, NF Wratten neutral filter, BF blue glass filter, RF red glass filter, IF interference filter, M monochromator, PS pendulum shutter, CS camera shutter, T adaptation source lamps, BS beam splitter, P prism, U unsilvered mirror, TF fixation source lamp, PD pinhole stop, D field stop, SS surround adaptation screen, O observer’s eye.

F. 2
F. 2

Examples of retinal responses. The rows are for the three colors of adaptation. The columns are for different wavelengths of test flash. All responses were elicited by test flashes of approximately equal energy content.

F. 3
F. 3

Luminance curves for the negative wave. Each point is the average of six responses.

F. 4
F. 4

Representative luminance curves for the positive wave.

F. 5
F. 5

Relation between luminance curve and wave form of response. Blue adaptation. 525 mµ test flashes.

F. 6
F. 6

Relation between luminance curve and wave form of response. Blue adaptation. 625 mµ test flashes.

F. 7
F. 7

Spectral sensitivity of the 20 µV positive deflection. The curves have been shifted along the ordinate to prevent overlap. The data for blue adaptation have been displaced upwards 2.5 log units and those for purple 2.2 log units relative to red. Filled circles are used to distinguish the points for purple adaptation from those of other colors. The smooth curves drawn through the points for blue and purple adaptation are combinations of the scotopic ICI functions and Boynton’s7 red process. The curve for blue adaptation is 53% scotopic, that for purple 67% scotopic and that for red 100% scotopic.

F. 8
F. 8

Comparisons of the spectral sensitivities of the positive and negative waves. The open circles are for the negative wave and the filled for the positive. The pair of curves for blue adaptation has been shifted upwards 0.6 log units and that for red adaptation downwards 1.2 log units with respect to the purple data. The negative wave data have been fitted with a combination of the scotopic ICI and Wald’s8 curve for the peripheral cones. The curves drawn through the negative wave data 42% scotopic for blue, 25% for purple, and 69% scotopic for red adaptation. The positive wave data have been fitted with a combination of the scotopic ICI and Boynton’s red curve.7 The curves drawn through the points are 87% scotopic for blue, 83% scotopic for purple, and 100% scotopic for red adaptation.

F. 9
F. 9

Effect of basing spectral sensitivity on different heights of positive response. Blue adaptation. The smooth lines are additive combinations of the scotopic ICI and Boynton’s red curve as in previous figures (53%, 87%, and 100%, scotopic for 20, 35, and 50 µV criteria, respectively). The dashed lines drawn through the red part of the data indicate Pitt’s6 red sensitivity.

F. 10
F. 10

Effect of basing spectral sensitivity on different criteria. Positive wave-red adaptation.