Abstract

An investigation of the colors in the Munsell 5R plane and an extension of this study to colors produced in a small aperture in a large white illuminated surround have led to the discovery of some interesting and novel relationships. It is found that under these conditions the domain of surface color perception includes the whole of the range from V = 0 to 10 and pc = 0 to 1.0 and under some conditions more. For a color of a given dominant wavelength there is a locus lying wholly within this space along which lie colors that do not appear to contain gray. If luminance or purity is increased above a point on this line, the sample takes on the appearance characteristic of a fluorescent material. If either is decreased below a point on this line, the color is perceived as having a gray component added to the purely chromatic component in increasing amounts until at pc = 0, there is no chromatic component perception of the color or at low values of V the sample appears black. Above a point somewhat higher than surround luminance, the appearance of fluorescence ceases and the surface mode changes to the illuminant mode, the saturation of the perceived color decreasing with increasing luminance above this point. An hypothesis is suggested to explain the facts and it is pointed out that more than one kind of “brightness” is necessarily involved.

© 1959 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary of Historical Principles, edited by J. A. H. Murray (Oxford University Press, New York, 1933).
  2. Deane B. Judd, Color in Business, Science and Industry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952).On page 154 it is stated that more than 60% of the TCCA color standards fluoresce de-tectably. Almost none of them appears to.
  3. W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) 48, 254–256 (1953).
  4. Newhall, Burnham, and Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 976–984 (1958). Figure 2 is taken from this article.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Deane B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 24, 293–333 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  6. Ralph M. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 774–779 (1949).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 361 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  8. Burnham, Evans, and Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 597–605 (1952)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. L. MacAdams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 589–595 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. L. Sanders and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 398–404 (1957).G. Wyszecki and C. L. Sanders, ibid. 47, 840–842 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. J. Breneman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 228–232 (1958).
    [Crossref]

1958 (2)

1957 (1)

1953 (1)

W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) 48, 254–256 (1953).

1952 (1)

1950 (1)

1949 (1)

1940 (1)

Deane B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 24, 293–333 (1940).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

Breneman, E. J.

Burnham,

Evans,

Evans, Ralph M.

Judd, Deane B.

Deane B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 24, 293–333 (1940).
[Crossref]

Deane B. Judd, Color in Business, Science and Industry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952).On page 154 it is stated that more than 60% of the TCCA color standards fluoresce de-tectably. Almost none of them appears to.

MacAdam, D. L.

MacAdams, D. L.

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) 48, 254–256 (1953).

Newhall,

Sanders, C. L.

Wyszecki, G.

Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) (1)

W. E. K. Middleton and C. L. Sanders, Illum. Eng. Soc. (N. Y.) 48, 254–256 (1953).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (1)

Deane B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 24, 293–333 (1940).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Shorter Oxford English Dictionary of Historical Principles, edited by J. A. H. Murray (Oxford University Press, New York, 1933).

Deane B. Judd, Color in Business, Science and Industry (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952).On page 154 it is stated that more than 60% of the TCCA color standards fluoresce de-tectably. Almost none of them appears to.

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Figures (20)

F. 1
F. 1

Front view of Munsell apparatus with sides removed to show Munsell patches on sliding arms.

F. 2
F. 2

Side view of aperture colorimeter (retouched to show surround illuminator). The light source for the variable filter assembly is seen at the far right.

F. 3
F. 3

Chroma and saturation as set by the observers, plotted using actual instrument chroma and value as coordinates. White background (V = 10/).

F. 4
F. 4

Same as Fig. 3 but gray background (V = 5/).

F. 5
F. 5

Same as Fig. 3 but black background (V = 2.5/).

F. 6
F. 6

Data of Fig. 3 (white background) plotted with excitation purity as abscissa.

F. 7
F. 7

Data of Fig. 5 (black background) plotted with excitation purity as abscissa.

F. 8
F. 8

The samples along any curve were judged to have equal contrast with the background. White background (V = 10/).

F. 9
F. 9

Same as Fig. 8 but gray background (V = 5/).

F. 10
F. 10

Same as Fig. 8 but black background (V = 2.5/).

F. 11
F. 11

Samples along any curve were judged to have a gray content equal to the value indicated at the beginning of the curve. White background.

F. 12
F. 12

Same as Fig. 11. Gray background.

F. 13
F. 13

Same as Fig. 11. Black background.

F. 14
F. 14

Data of Fig. 11, plotted with excitation purity as abscissa.

F. 15
F. 15

Aperture colorimeter data for dominant wavelength 452.7 mµ. White surround. Curve IL = illuminant mode threshold; Curve B = “Brightness” match with surround; Curve FL = zero gray (or fluorence) threshold; Curve Gy = constant gray content = 6/; Curve MAL = MacAdam limit curves for the dominant wavelengths shown.

F. 16
F. 16

Same as Fig. 15 but dominant wavelength 491.9 mµ.

F. 17
F. 17

Same as Fig. 15 but dominant wavelength 524.1 mµ.

F. 18
F. 18

Same as Fig. 15 but dominant wavelength 583.6 mµ.

F. 19
F. 19

Same as Fig. 15 but dominant wavelength 605.5 mµ.

F. 20
F. 20

Aperture colorimeter data for surround and sample both of dominant wavelength 524.1 mµ and surround at maximum purity (0.76) throughout. Samples appeared pink to left of neutral and fluorescent to left of FL.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I CIE specifications of Macbeth 6500 K lamps.

Tables Icon

Table II Nominal specifications for CIE source A of colors produced by filters used.