Abstract

As an example of a mounting in which the optical components are not on the Rowland cylinder, the Seya-Namioka mounting is treated mainly from the standpoint of physical optics. An ambiguity in the physical meaning of Beutler’s focal conditions is clarified; using the corrected condition a brief summary of the optical conditions in this mounting is given. Astigmatism, spectral line shape, instrumental resolving power, and optimum grating width are discussed in detail and, for convenience of practical application, numerical results are also given for the following conditions: 1-m concave grating with 15 000 lines/in., first order spectrum, with ratios of the radius of curvature of the grating to the distances between the grating center and the entrance and exit slits 1.2223, and 1.2230, respectively, and the angle between the lines connecting the grating center to the entrance and exit slit 70° 15′

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  1. Y. Fujioka and R. Ito, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 1, 1 (1951); Tousey, Johnson, Richardson, and Toran, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 696 (1951); R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy (Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1944), second edition, pp. 161–164. Instead of moving a concave grating the exit slit can be moved along the Rowland circle with fixed entrance slit and grating. However, this is practically not convenient and has lack of compactness. For this kind of mounting, see T. J. M. Sluyters and E. De Hass, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 597 (1958).
  2. In a commercial vacuum ultraviolet monochromator, a simple link motion is used. See also Bair, Cross, Dawson, Wilson, and Wise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 681 (1953).
  3. M. Seya, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 2, 8 (1952).
  4. T. Namioka, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 3, 15 (1954).
  5. H. Greiner and E. Schäffer, Optik 14, 263 (1957); 15, 51 (1958).
  6. P. D. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instr. 28, 833 (1957).
  7. R. Onaka, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 7, 23 (1958).
  8. T. Namioka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 446 (1959).
  9. Mack, Stehn, and Edlén, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 245 (1932).
  10. H. G. Beutler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 311 (1945). For the corrected theory, see reference 8.
  11. For details, see references 3 and 5.
  12. For details, refer to Sec. II of reference 8.
  13. Image points and points at which diffraction takes place are, in the sense of geometrical optics, in "one to one" correspondence for a given point light source. In geometrical optics, an image is defined in this case as a figure produced by intersection of the diffracted rays and a given screen surface regardless of whether the quality of the image is good or bad. Equations (3) and (4) give only directions in space, β0 and z0′/r0′ for the central ray and thus z0′ and r0′ cannot be determined independently but are uniquely determined when the equation of the screen surface is known.
  14. For the reason why we considered (5) but not (6), refer to the discussion following Eq. (4″) of reference 8.
  15. Refer to pp. 316 and 319 of reference 10.
  16. Hurzeler, Inghram, and Morrison, J. Chem. Phys. 27, 313 (1957); 28, 76 (1958).
  17. In Sec. V and VI we are dealing with the resolving power of the grating itself and not including any effects due to the finite slit width, Doppler effect, sensitivity of the detector, etc. Therefore, in practical cases such effects must be taken into consideration.

Beutler, H. G.

H. G. Beutler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 311 (1945). For the corrected theory, see reference 8.

Fujioka, Y.

Y. Fujioka and R. Ito, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 1, 1 (1951); Tousey, Johnson, Richardson, and Toran, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 696 (1951); R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy (Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1944), second edition, pp. 161–164. Instead of moving a concave grating the exit slit can be moved along the Rowland circle with fixed entrance slit and grating. However, this is practically not convenient and has lack of compactness. For this kind of mounting, see T. J. M. Sluyters and E. De Hass, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 597 (1958).

Greiner, H.

H. Greiner and E. Schäffer, Optik 14, 263 (1957); 15, 51 (1958).

Ito, R.

Y. Fujioka and R. Ito, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 1, 1 (1951); Tousey, Johnson, Richardson, and Toran, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 696 (1951); R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy (Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1944), second edition, pp. 161–164. Instead of moving a concave grating the exit slit can be moved along the Rowland circle with fixed entrance slit and grating. However, this is practically not convenient and has lack of compactness. For this kind of mounting, see T. J. M. Sluyters and E. De Hass, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 597 (1958).

Johnson, P. D.

P. D. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instr. 28, 833 (1957).

Namioka, T.

T. Namioka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 446 (1959).

T. Namioka, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 3, 15 (1954).

Onaka, R.

R. Onaka, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 7, 23 (1958).

Schäffer, E.

H. Greiner and E. Schäffer, Optik 14, 263 (1957); 15, 51 (1958).

Seya, M.

M. Seya, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 2, 8 (1952).

Other (17)

Y. Fujioka and R. Ito, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 1, 1 (1951); Tousey, Johnson, Richardson, and Toran, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 696 (1951); R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy (Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1944), second edition, pp. 161–164. Instead of moving a concave grating the exit slit can be moved along the Rowland circle with fixed entrance slit and grating. However, this is practically not convenient and has lack of compactness. For this kind of mounting, see T. J. M. Sluyters and E. De Hass, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 597 (1958).

In a commercial vacuum ultraviolet monochromator, a simple link motion is used. See also Bair, Cross, Dawson, Wilson, and Wise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 681 (1953).

M. Seya, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 2, 8 (1952).

T. Namioka, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 3, 15 (1954).

H. Greiner and E. Schäffer, Optik 14, 263 (1957); 15, 51 (1958).

P. D. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instr. 28, 833 (1957).

R. Onaka, Sci. of Light (Tokyo) 7, 23 (1958).

T. Namioka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 446 (1959).

Mack, Stehn, and Edlén, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 245 (1932).

H. G. Beutler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 311 (1945). For the corrected theory, see reference 8.

For details, see references 3 and 5.

For details, refer to Sec. II of reference 8.

Image points and points at which diffraction takes place are, in the sense of geometrical optics, in "one to one" correspondence for a given point light source. In geometrical optics, an image is defined in this case as a figure produced by intersection of the diffracted rays and a given screen surface regardless of whether the quality of the image is good or bad. Equations (3) and (4) give only directions in space, β0 and z0′/r0′ for the central ray and thus z0′ and r0′ cannot be determined independently but are uniquely determined when the equation of the screen surface is known.

For the reason why we considered (5) but not (6), refer to the discussion following Eq. (4″) of reference 8.

Refer to pp. 316 and 319 of reference 10.

Hurzeler, Inghram, and Morrison, J. Chem. Phys. 27, 313 (1957); 28, 76 (1958).

In Sec. V and VI we are dealing with the resolving power of the grating itself and not including any effects due to the finite slit width, Doppler effect, sensitivity of the detector, etc. Therefore, in practical cases such effects must be taken into consideration.

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