Abstract

The optimum concentration technique for increasing the intensity of the Raman spectrum of a colored substance has been considered in detail. Intensity-concentration data are given for a number of Raman lines. An optimum concentration for a maximum in observed Raman intensity is shown to exist for each of the Raman lines examined. An expression has been derived relating the observed Raman intensity with the molar concentration of a solution of absorbing substance in a transparent solvent by consideration of the absorption of both the exciting radiation and the scattered radiation. The agreement between the theoretical curves and the experimental points is good. More experimental data are necessary to check further the theoretical expression. The best technique for obtaining the Raman spectra of colored substances is to use excitation radiation which will not be absorbed and which will not cause photochemical decomposition. When light sources which emit such radiation are not available, the optimum-concentration technique has been shown to be a possible alternative method for obtaining a Raman spectrum.

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  2. F. T. King and E. R. Lippincott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 661 (1956).
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Allen, G.

H. J. Bernstein and G. Allen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 237 (1955).

Bafford, R. A.

R. A. Bafford, Master's thesis, "The construction of an automiatic recording Raman spectrometer," University of Maryland (1956).

Baly, E. C. C.

E. C. C. Baly, Spectroscopy (Longmans Green and Company, New York, 1912), p. 492

Bender, P.

J. Chien and P. Bender, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 376 (1947).

Bernstein, H. J.

H. J. Bernstein and G. Allen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 237 (1955).

Chien, J.

J. Chien and P. Bender, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 376 (1947).

Cope, A. C.

A. C. Cope and C. G. Overberger, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70, 1433 (1948).

Crosswhite, H. M.

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 476 (1945).

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 476 (1945).

Fisher, R. D.

R. D. Fisher, Master's thesis, "Raman spectra of certain colored substances and the existence of an optimum concentration for maximum intensity of scattered radiation," Kansas State College (1954).

Forneris, R.

H. Stammreich and R. Forneris, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 52 (1956).

H. Stammreich and R. Forneris, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 46 (1956).

George, J. H. B.

L. A. Woodward and J. H. B. George, Nature 167, 193 (1951).

Gillam, A. E.

A. E. Gillam and E. S. Stern, An Introduction to Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry (Edward Arnold, London, 1954), p. 8.

Hibben, J. H.

J. H. Hibben, The Raman Effect and Its Chemical Applications (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1939), p. 29.

King, F. T.

F. T. King and E. R. Lippincott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 661 (1956).

F. T. King and E. R. Lippincott, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 4192 (1956).

Kohn, O.

E. Noelting and O. Kohn, Ber. deut. chem. Ges. 17, 371 (1884).

Lippincott, E. R.

F. T. King and E. R. Lippincott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 661 (1956).

F. T. King and E. R. Lippincott, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 4192 (1956).

E. R. Lippincott and R. D. Nelson, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1307 (1953).

Lofthus, A.

A. Lofthus, Spectrochim. Acta 9, 216 (1953).

McClure, D. S.

D. S. McClure, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 670 (1951).

Nelson, R. D.

E. R. Lippincott and R. D. Nelson, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1307 (1953).

Noelting, E.

E. Noelting and E. Salis, Ber. deut. chem. Ges. 14, 987 (1881).

E. Noelting and O. Kohn, Ber. deut. chem. Ges. 17, 371 (1884).

Overberger, C. G.

A. C. Cope and C. G. Overberger, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70, 1433 (1948).

Rank, D. H.

D. H. Rank et al., Anal. Chem. 19, 700 (1947).

Ross, I. G.

I. G. Ross, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 40 (1954).

Salis, E.

E. Noelting and E. Salis, Ber. deut. chem. Ges. 14, 987 (1881).

Salzman, Jr., C. F.

R. F. Stamm and C. F. Salzman, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 126 (1953).

Stamm, R. F.

R. F. Stamm and C. F. Salzman, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 126 (1953).

Stammreich, H.

H. Stammreich, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 41 (1956).

H. Stammreich and R. Forneris, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 46 (1956).

H. Stammreich and R. Forneris, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 52 (1956).

Stern, E. S.

A. E. Gillam and E. S. Stern, An Introduction to Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry (Edward Arnold, London, 1954), p. 8.

Woodward, L. A.

L. A. Woodward and J. H. B. George, Nature 167, 193 (1951).

Other (35)

D. H. Rank et al., Anal. Chem. 19, 700 (1947).

F. T. King and E. R. Lippincott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 661 (1956).

Stammreich, Forneris, and Tavares, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 580 (1956).

H. Stammreich, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 41 (1956).

H. Stammreich and R. Forneris, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 46 (1956).

H. Stammreich and R. Forneris, Spectrochim. Acta 8, 52 (1956).

E. R. Lippincott and R. D. Nelson, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1307 (1953).

F. T. King and E. R. Lippincott, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 4192 (1956).

Fateley, Curnutte, and Lippincott, J. Chem. Phys. 26, 1471 (1957).

R. D. Fisher, Master's thesis, "Raman spectra of certain colored substances and the existence of an optimum concentration for maximum intensity of scattered radiation," Kansas State College (1954).

Long, Milner, and Thomas, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A237, 186 (1956).

A. Lofthus, Spectrochim. Acta 9, 216 (1953).

J. Chien and P. Bender, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 376 (1947).

R. A. Bafford, Master's thesis, "The construction of an automiatic recording Raman spectrometer," University of Maryland (1956).

J. H. Hibben, The Raman Effect and Its Chemical Applications (Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1939), p. 29.

Prosen, Johnson, and Rossini, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, 2068 (1947).

A. C. Cope and C. G. Overberger, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70, 1433 (1948).

Eccleston, Coleman, and Adams, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 3866 (1950).

Lippincott, Lord, and McDonald, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 3370 (1951).

E. Noelting and O. Kohn, Ber. deut. chem. Ges. 17, 371 (1884).

E. Noelting and E. Salis, Ber. deut. chem. Ges. 14, 987 (1881).

Braude, Fawcett, and Timmons, J. Chem. Soc. 1019 (1950).

A. E. Gillam and E. S. Stern, An Introduction to Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry (Edward Arnold, London, 1954), p. 8.

Harrison, Lord, and Loofbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1948), p. 364.

E. C. C. Baly, Spectroscopy (Longmans Green and Company, New York, 1912), p. 492

Ungnade, Kerr, and Youse, Science 113, 60 (1951).

Vandenbelt, Henrich, and Bash, Science 114, 576 (1951).

I. G. Ross, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 40 (1954).

Rosenbaum, Cerato, and Lauer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 670 (1952).

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 476 (1945).

L. A. Woodward and J. H. B. George, Nature 167, 193 (1951).

R. F. Stamm and C. F. Salzman, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 126 (1953).

H. J. Bernstein and G. Allen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 237 (1955).

M Long, Milner, and Thomas, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A237, 197 (1956).

D. S. McClure, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 670 (1951).

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