Abstract

One hundred observers identified by name fifty blue, green, white, and purple test colors. Small areas and low illuminances were used to simulate conditions under which signal lights must be recognized. The results are expressed as chromaticity zones within which the test colors were assigned a given color name with various degrees of certainty. Large individual differences in color naming were found. Variability due to intensity and viewing distance is also demonstrated. The data can be applied to the specification of boundaries for colored signals.

© 1959 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Technical Committee 1.3.3.: Colours of Signal Lights. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Compte Rendu, 13th Session, Zurich, 1955.
  2. N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 560 (1947); J. G. N. Holmes, Trans. Illum. Soc. (London) 6, 71 (1941); H. J. McNicholas, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 17, 955 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. M. Halsey and A. Chapanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 442 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. G. Sperling and D. Farnsworth, (1950).
  5. F. C. Breckenridge and W. R. Schaub, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 370 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  6. A number of recent investigations have shown that the calculation of luminance according to the C.I.E. system may result in erroneous values for lights containing a wide band of spectral radiation. W. E. K. Middleton and H. S. T. Gottfried, in Illum. Eng.52, 192 (1957), show that the discrepancies between calculated and visual estimates of the intensities of signal lights may be considerable.
  7. For these particular primary filters and these particular restrictions on the proportions of the primaries, the locus of all mixtures having equal illuminance is given on the C.I.E. diagram byy=K(0.910-x)0.9654K+31.4651for “High” illuminance,and byy=K(0.951-x)1.0477K+9.0953for “Low,” whereK=illuminance in mile-candles.These illuminances correspond closely to relative transmission values for actual filters of different purities, according to data supplied by F. C. Breckenridge (personal communication). See also footnote 6.
  8. Table A, Appendix to the Secretariat Report of the Technical Committee 1.3.3, reference 1.
  9. Ellis M. Taft, HM2, U. S. Navy, served skillfully in this capacity; his assistance is gratefully acknowledged.
  10. For the effect of background brightness on thresholds for certain red, yellow, green, and white signals, see: N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 574 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  11. Section 2.3.3.2, Annex to Recommendation 1.3.3, reference 1.
  12. F. C. Breckenridge (personal communication).
  13. K. L. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 627 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. W. Pickford, Individual Differences in Colour Vision (Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1951), p. 198.
  15. For example, see Otto Klineberg, Social Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1940), p. 204; C. S. Myers, An Introduction to Experimental Psychology (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1911), pp. 29–41; Pickford, reference 14, pp. 31 and 34, cites a 1925 edition of the latter.

1954 (1)

1947 (2)

For the effect of background brightness on thresholds for certain red, yellow, green, and white signals, see: N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 574 (1947).
[Crossref]

N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 560 (1947); J. G. N. Holmes, Trans. Illum. Soc. (London) 6, 71 (1941); H. J. McNicholas, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 17, 955 (1936).
[Crossref]

1943 (1)

1939 (1)

Breckenridge, F. C.

F. C. Breckenridge and W. R. Schaub, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 370 (1939).
[Crossref]

For these particular primary filters and these particular restrictions on the proportions of the primaries, the locus of all mixtures having equal illuminance is given on the C.I.E. diagram byy=K(0.910-x)0.9654K+31.4651for “High” illuminance,and byy=K(0.951-x)1.0477K+9.0953for “Low,” whereK=illuminance in mile-candles.These illuminances correspond closely to relative transmission values for actual filters of different purities, according to data supplied by F. C. Breckenridge (personal communication). See also footnote 6.

F. C. Breckenridge (personal communication).

Chapanis, A.

Farnsworth, D.

H. G. Sperling and D. Farnsworth, (1950).

Gottfried, H. S. T.

A number of recent investigations have shown that the calculation of luminance according to the C.I.E. system may result in erroneous values for lights containing a wide band of spectral radiation. W. E. K. Middleton and H. S. T. Gottfried, in Illum. Eng.52, 192 (1957), show that the discrepancies between calculated and visual estimates of the intensities of signal lights may be considerable.

Halsey, R. M.

Hill, N. E. G.

N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 560 (1947); J. G. N. Holmes, Trans. Illum. Soc. (London) 6, 71 (1941); H. J. McNicholas, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 17, 955 (1936).
[Crossref]

For the effect of background brightness on thresholds for certain red, yellow, green, and white signals, see: N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 574 (1947).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. L.

Klineberg, Otto

For example, see Otto Klineberg, Social Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1940), p. 204; C. S. Myers, An Introduction to Experimental Psychology (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1911), pp. 29–41; Pickford, reference 14, pp. 31 and 34, cites a 1925 edition of the latter.

Middleton, W. E. K.

A number of recent investigations have shown that the calculation of luminance according to the C.I.E. system may result in erroneous values for lights containing a wide band of spectral radiation. W. E. K. Middleton and H. S. T. Gottfried, in Illum. Eng.52, 192 (1957), show that the discrepancies between calculated and visual estimates of the intensities of signal lights may be considerable.

Pickford, R. W.

R. W. Pickford, Individual Differences in Colour Vision (Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1951), p. 198.

Schaub, W. R.

Sperling, H. G.

H. G. Sperling and D. Farnsworth, (1950).

Taft, Ellis M.

Ellis M. Taft, HM2, U. S. Navy, served skillfully in this capacity; his assistance is gratefully acknowledged.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (2)

For the effect of background brightness on thresholds for certain red, yellow, green, and white signals, see: N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 574 (1947).
[Crossref]

N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 560 (1947); J. G. N. Holmes, Trans. Illum. Soc. (London) 6, 71 (1941); H. J. McNicholas, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 17, 955 (1936).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

Technical Committee 1.3.3.: Colours of Signal Lights. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Compte Rendu, 13th Session, Zurich, 1955.

H. G. Sperling and D. Farnsworth, (1950).

A number of recent investigations have shown that the calculation of luminance according to the C.I.E. system may result in erroneous values for lights containing a wide band of spectral radiation. W. E. K. Middleton and H. S. T. Gottfried, in Illum. Eng.52, 192 (1957), show that the discrepancies between calculated and visual estimates of the intensities of signal lights may be considerable.

For these particular primary filters and these particular restrictions on the proportions of the primaries, the locus of all mixtures having equal illuminance is given on the C.I.E. diagram byy=K(0.910-x)0.9654K+31.4651for “High” illuminance,and byy=K(0.951-x)1.0477K+9.0953for “Low,” whereK=illuminance in mile-candles.These illuminances correspond closely to relative transmission values for actual filters of different purities, according to data supplied by F. C. Breckenridge (personal communication). See also footnote 6.

Table A, Appendix to the Secretariat Report of the Technical Committee 1.3.3, reference 1.

Ellis M. Taft, HM2, U. S. Navy, served skillfully in this capacity; his assistance is gratefully acknowledged.

Section 2.3.3.2, Annex to Recommendation 1.3.3, reference 1.

F. C. Breckenridge (personal communication).

R. W. Pickford, Individual Differences in Colour Vision (Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1951), p. 198.

For example, see Otto Klineberg, Social Psychology (Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1940), p. 204; C. S. Myers, An Introduction to Experimental Psychology (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1911), pp. 29–41; Pickford, reference 14, pp. 31 and 34, cites a 1925 edition of the latter.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scale diagram of experimental arrangement (top view). For details of colorimeter (not drawn to scale), see text and reference 4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Locations of test colors and signal light boundaries on the C.I.E. and R.U.C.S. diagrams. (“High” illuminance level.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contours of name “Green,” on section R.U.C.S. diagram, for “High” illuminance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Color naming contours, on section of R.U.C.S. diagram, for “High” illuminance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Color naming contours, on section of R.U.C.S. diagram, for “Low” illuminance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution of “Purple” (solid lines), “Blue” (dashed lines), and “Green” (dotted lines) responses among nine test colors (identified by number on abscissa) by various observers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Chromaticity areas on C.I.E. diagram in which a given color name predominated at “High” illuminance.

Tables (6)

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Table I Specifications of primary filters.

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Table II Colorimetric specifications of test colors.a

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Table III Visual angles and illuminances of test colors at four observing distances.

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Table IV Frequencies with which each color name was applied to each test color at “High” illuminance by 100 observers.

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Table V Frequencies with which each color name was applied to each test color at “Low” illuminance by 100 observers.

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Table VI Comparison of the present data with those of Holmes. Conditions matching most closely in illuminance level and visual angle have been chosen from the two investigations (see text).

Equations (1)

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y=K(0.910-x)0.9654K+31.4651forHighilluminance,andbyy=K(0.951-x)1.0477K+9.0953forLow,where