Abstract

<p>A new case of unilateral dichromatism is described. She is a young woman with normal color vision in one eye and dichromatic vision of a primarily deuteranopic type in the other.</p><p>Critical fusion frequency functions for a centrally fixated 28-min field were determined in ten spectral regions, ranging from one having a spectral centroid at 452 mµ to one with a spectral centroid at 682 mµ, on both eyes of this unilaterally dichromatic subject. Determinations were also made with white light. Measurements extended over a range of approximately 3.5 log millilamberts. For all colors except red, the curve of critical fusion frequency vs log luminance for the color-blind eye is displaced downward on the critical fusion frequency axis with respect to the curve for the normal eye. For any given spectral region, the displacement is approximately constant over the luminance range tested and the two curves do not reach the same maximum fusion frequency. The magnitude of the shift varies with wavelength. It is greatest in the green, next in the blue-green, yellow-green, blue, and yellow; there is a slight loss in the orange and no detectable loss in the red. The data for white light data also show reduced critical fusion frequencies for the color-blind eye.</p><p>These findings are taken to reflect a reduction in the dichromatic eye of the number of receptors (of a type especially sensitive to green) available for excitation by the spectral range from about 450 mµ to 625 mµ.</p><p>Some measurements of critical fusion frequency with a 1° green and a 2° white field are also reported. They display the same general trends as the data for small fields, but the extent of the downward shift of the color-blind function is in each case less than that for the corresponding pair of curves with the 28-min area. The reduction in the amount of downward displacement with larger test fields comes about through a proportionately greater increase in critical fusion frequency with area for the color-blind than for the normal eye. The results are formulated in terms of a nonuniform distribution of color receptors across the fovea.</p>

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  1. C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci, U. S. 44, 46 (1958).
  2. S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 141 (1947).
  3. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 43, 1011 (1957).
  4. Graham, Sperling, Hsia, and Coulson (in preparation). See also Graham and Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).
  5. J. Stilling, Stilling's pseudo-Isochromatische Tafeln zur Prüyfung des Farbensinnes, edited by E. Hertel (Thieme, Leipzig, 1936) 19th edition.
  6. American Optical Company, A-O Pseudo-isochromatic Plates (Beck Engraving, Philadelphia, 1940).
  7. S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-blindness (Kanehara, Tokyo, 1932), sixth edition.
  8. I. Dvorine, Dvorine Pseudo-isochromatic Plates (Waverly Press, Baltimore, 1953), second edition.
  9. D. Farnsworth, Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test (Munsell Color Company, Baltimore 1949).
  10. M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, MRL Report No. 190, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, 11, 1 (1952).
  11. As the measurements for the subject's luminosity curve extended only to 430 mµ, values between 430 and 400 mµ were obtained by extrapolating the subject's curve on the basis of the recently published luminosity data of L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953). The two sets of data agreed closely otherwise.
  12. D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.
  13. S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 19, 342 (1936).
  14. R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930); S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979 (1936); R. T. Ross, J. Gen. Psychol. 18, 111 (1938); V. V. Lloyd, Am. J. Psychol. 65, 346 (1952).
  15. S. Polyak, Documenta Opthalmol. 3, 24 (1949).
  16. H. Helmholtz, Treatise on physiological optics, English translation by J. P. C. Southall, Handbuch der pysiologischen Optik (Optical Society of America, 1924–5, 1909–11), third edition, Vols. 1, 2, and 3.
  17. E. Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920). H. Hartridge, Recent advances in the physiology of vision (Churchill, London, 1950).
  18. G. L. Walls and R. W. Mathews, "New means of studying color blindness and normal foveal color vision," University of California Publications, Psychology 7, No. 1, (1952).
  19. F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 132, 101 (1944).
  20. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Mosby, St. Louis, 1947).
  21. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294 (1943).
  22. A. König, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur physiologischen Optik (Barth, Leipzig, 1903).
  23. E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945); L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).
  24. W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).
  25. A. Ajo and H. Terädskeli, Acta Ophthalmol. 15, 374 (1937); Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948); E. Dodt and L. Wadensten, Acta Ophthalmol. 32, 165 (1954).
  26. F. Allen, Phys. Rev. 15, 193 (1902).
  27. E. S. Ferry, Am. J. Sci. 44, 192 (1892).

Ajo, A.

A. Ajo and H. Terädskeli, Acta Ophthalmol. 15, 374 (1937); Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948); E. Dodt and L. Wadensten, Acta Ophthalmol. 32, 165 (1954).

Allen, F.

F. Allen, Phys. Rev. 15, 193 (1902).

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 19, 342 (1936).

Dvorine, I.

I. Dvorine, Dvorine Pseudo-isochromatic Plates (Waverly Press, Baltimore, 1953), second edition.

Farnsworth, D.

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, MRL Report No. 190, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, 11, 1 (1952).

D. Farnsworth, Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test (Munsell Color Company, Baltimore 1949).

Ferry, E. S.

E. S. Ferry, Am. J. Sci. 44, 192 (1892).

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci, U. S. 44, 46 (1958).

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 43, 1011 (1957).

Granit, R.

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930); S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979 (1936); R. T. Ross, J. Gen. Psychol. 18, 111 (1938); V. V. Lloyd, Am. J. Psychol. 65, 346 (1952).

Harper, P.

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930); S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979 (1936); R. T. Ross, J. Gen. Psychol. 18, 111 (1938); V. V. Lloyd, Am. J. Psychol. 65, 346 (1952).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 141 (1947).

Helmholtz, H.

H. Helmholtz, Treatise on physiological optics, English translation by J. P. C. Southall, Handbuch der pysiologischen Optik (Optical Society of America, 1924–5, 1909–11), third edition, Vols. 1, 2, and 3.

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920). H. Hartridge, Recent advances in the physiology of vision (Churchill, London, 1950).

Hsia, Y.

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 141 (1947).

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 43, 1011 (1957).

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci, U. S. 44, 46 (1958).

Ishihara, S.

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-blindness (Kanehara, Tokyo, 1932), sixth edition.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294 (1943).

König, A.

A. König, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur physiologischen Optik (Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

Mathews, R. W.

G. L. Walls and R. W. Mathews, "New means of studying color blindness and normal foveal color vision," University of California Publications, Psychology 7, No. 1, (1952).

Pitt, F. H. G.

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 132, 101 (1944).

Polyak, S.

S. Polyak, Documenta Opthalmol. 3, 24 (1949).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).

Stilling, J.

J. Stilling, Stilling's pseudo-Isochromatische Tafeln zur Prüyfung des Farbensinnes, edited by E. Hertel (Thieme, Leipzig, 1936) 19th edition.

Terädskeli, H.

A. Ajo and H. Terädskeli, Acta Ophthalmol. 15, 374 (1937); Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948); E. Dodt and L. Wadensten, Acta Ophthalmol. 32, 165 (1954).

Walls, G. L.

G. L. Walls and R. W. Mathews, "New means of studying color blindness and normal foveal color vision," University of California Publications, Psychology 7, No. 1, (1952).

Willis, M. P.

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, MRL Report No. 190, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, 11, 1 (1952).

Willmer, E. N.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945); L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

Wright, W. D.

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945); L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Mosby, St. Louis, 1947).

Other

C. H. Graham and Y. Hsia, Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci, U. S. 44, 46 (1958).

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 141 (1947).

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 43, 1011 (1957).

Graham, Sperling, Hsia, and Coulson (in preparation). See also Graham and Hsia, Science 127, 675 (1958).

J. Stilling, Stilling's pseudo-Isochromatische Tafeln zur Prüyfung des Farbensinnes, edited by E. Hertel (Thieme, Leipzig, 1936) 19th edition.

American Optical Company, A-O Pseudo-isochromatic Plates (Beck Engraving, Philadelphia, 1940).

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-blindness (Kanehara, Tokyo, 1932), sixth edition.

I. Dvorine, Dvorine Pseudo-isochromatic Plates (Waverly Press, Baltimore, 1953), second edition.

D. Farnsworth, Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test (Munsell Color Company, Baltimore 1949).

M. P. Willis and D. Farnsworth, MRL Report No. 190, U. S. Submarine Base, New London, 11, 1 (1952).

As the measurements for the subject's luminosity curve extended only to 430 mµ, values between 430 and 400 mµ were obtained by extrapolating the subject's curve on the basis of the recently published luminosity data of L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953). The two sets of data agreed closely otherwise.

D. B. Judd, Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S. S. Stevens (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 19, 342 (1936).

R. Granit and P. Harper, Am. J. Physiol. 95, 211 (1930); S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979 (1936); R. T. Ross, J. Gen. Psychol. 18, 111 (1938); V. V. Lloyd, Am. J. Psychol. 65, 346 (1952).

S. Polyak, Documenta Opthalmol. 3, 24 (1949).

H. Helmholtz, Treatise on physiological optics, English translation by J. P. C. Southall, Handbuch der pysiologischen Optik (Optical Society of America, 1924–5, 1909–11), third edition, Vols. 1, 2, and 3.

E. Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920). H. Hartridge, Recent advances in the physiology of vision (Churchill, London, 1950).

G. L. Walls and R. W. Mathews, "New means of studying color blindness and normal foveal color vision," University of California Publications, Psychology 7, No. 1, (1952).

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 132, 101 (1944).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (Mosby, St. Louis, 1947).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294 (1943).

A. König, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur physiologischen Optik (Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

E. N. Willmer and W. D. Wright, Nature 156, 119 (1945); L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

W. S. Stiles, Documenta Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).

A. Ajo and H. Terädskeli, Acta Ophthalmol. 15, 374 (1937); Hecht, Shlaer, Smith, and Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948); E. Dodt and L. Wadensten, Acta Ophthalmol. 32, 165 (1954).

F. Allen, Phys. Rev. 15, 193 (1902).

E. S. Ferry, Am. J. Sci. 44, 192 (1892).

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