Abstract

This is the report of Inter-Society Color Council Subcommittee on Problem 19 formed in 1953 to study the color technology of white surfaces. Physically, surfaces which appear white reflect strongly and diffusely throughout the visible spectrum. Psychophysically, whites occupy a volume without sharply defined boundaries in the top center of the color solid. Whiteness is the attribute of white surfaces which corresponds to their visual proximity to preferred white. Preferred white varies somewhat with changes of either observer or observing situation. Measurements and intercomparisons of the colors of whites are made to determine adequacies of match to standard and to determine compliance with color specifications. One-number reflectance measurements of whites are widely used as partial determinations of whiteness. There have been a number of investigations to find which formulas yield the most reliable measurements of whiteness from tristimulus values, but the whiteness scales which have resulted from these i vestigations have not enjoyed widespread commercial use.

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  1. D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 100, 266 (1935); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 18, 392 (1935).
  2. D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 103, 154 (1936); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 19, 359 (1936).
  3. H. Hemmendinger and J. M. Lambert, J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 30, 163 (1953).
  4. A. C. Hardy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 305 (1935).
  5. D. Nickerson, Color measurement and its application to color grading of agricultural products, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. No. 580 (1946).
  6. E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942); D. Nickerson, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 39 (August 21, 1950); and G. L. Buc, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 41 (June 9, 1952).
  7. Gardner Laboratory, Bethesda, Maryland, Description and instructions for Hunter color and color difference meter (June, 1950); Van den Akker, Aprison, and Olson, Tappi 34, 143 A (1951); and R. S. Hunter, Direct-reading, photoelectric color and cqlor-difference meter (In preparation).
  8. R. S. Hunter, Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters, Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. No. C429 (1942).
  9. Am. Soc. Testing Material Method E97-53T, 45-deg, 0-deg directional reflectance of opaque specimens by filter photometry, Am. Soc. Testing Materials (1953).
  10. Federal Specification TT-P-141b, Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of inspection, sampling and testing: Method 612.1 directional reflectance, Method 412.1 dry opacity; Method 613.1 yellowness and yellowing.
  11. Tech. Assoc. Pulp Paper Ind. Method T425m-44, Opacity of paper (1944).
  12. Tech. Assoc. Pulp Paper Ind., Method T425m-48, Brightness of paper (1948).
  13. Am. Soc. Testing Material Method D985-50, Method of test for 45-deg, 0-deg directional reflectance for blue light (brightness) of paper (1950).
  14. Nickerson, Hunter, and Powell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 446 (1950).
  15. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 188 (1934).
  16. V. G. W. Harrison, Patra J. Nos. 2 and 3 (London, 1938, 1939).
  17. H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 [Vezelinst. T.N.O. (Delft), 1950].
  18. R. W. Asmussen and B. Buchmann-Olsen, Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1949).
  19. Hutchins, Stearns, and Sundstrom, Tappi 35, 342 (1952).
  20. D. L. MacAdam, Tappi 38, 78 (1955).

Adams, E. Q.

E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942); D. Nickerson, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 39 (August 21, 1950); and G. L. Buc, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 41 (June 9, 1952).

Asmussen, R. W.

R. W. Asmussen and B. Buchmann-Olsen, Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1949).

Buchmann-Olsen, B.

R. W. Asmussen and B. Buchmann-Olsen, Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1949).

Friele, L. F. C.

H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 [Vezelinst. T.N.O. (Delft), 1950].

Hardy, A. C.

A. C. Hardy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 305 (1935).

Harrison, V. G. W.

V. G. W. Harrison, Patra J. Nos. 2 and 3 (London, 1938, 1939).

Hemmendinger, H.

H. Hemmendinger and J. M. Lambert, J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 30, 163 (1953).

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters, Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. No. C429 (1942).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 100, 266 (1935); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 18, 392 (1935).

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 103, 154 (1936); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 19, 359 (1936).

Lambert, J. M.

H. Hemmendinger and J. M. Lambert, J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 30, 163 (1953).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 188 (1934).

D. L. MacAdam, Tappi 38, 78 (1955).

Nickerson, D.

D. Nickerson, Color measurement and its application to color grading of agricultural products, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. No. 580 (1946).

Selling, H. J.

H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 [Vezelinst. T.N.O. (Delft), 1950].

Other (20)

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 100, 266 (1935); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 18, 392 (1935).

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 103, 154 (1936); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 19, 359 (1936).

H. Hemmendinger and J. M. Lambert, J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 30, 163 (1953).

A. C. Hardy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 305 (1935).

D. Nickerson, Color measurement and its application to color grading of agricultural products, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. No. 580 (1946).

E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942); D. Nickerson, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 39 (August 21, 1950); and G. L. Buc, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 41 (June 9, 1952).

Gardner Laboratory, Bethesda, Maryland, Description and instructions for Hunter color and color difference meter (June, 1950); Van den Akker, Aprison, and Olson, Tappi 34, 143 A (1951); and R. S. Hunter, Direct-reading, photoelectric color and cqlor-difference meter (In preparation).

R. S. Hunter, Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters, Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. No. C429 (1942).

Am. Soc. Testing Material Method E97-53T, 45-deg, 0-deg directional reflectance of opaque specimens by filter photometry, Am. Soc. Testing Materials (1953).

Federal Specification TT-P-141b, Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of inspection, sampling and testing: Method 612.1 directional reflectance, Method 412.1 dry opacity; Method 613.1 yellowness and yellowing.

Tech. Assoc. Pulp Paper Ind. Method T425m-44, Opacity of paper (1944).

Tech. Assoc. Pulp Paper Ind., Method T425m-48, Brightness of paper (1948).

Am. Soc. Testing Material Method D985-50, Method of test for 45-deg, 0-deg directional reflectance for blue light (brightness) of paper (1950).

Nickerson, Hunter, and Powell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 446 (1950).

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 188 (1934).

V. G. W. Harrison, Patra J. Nos. 2 and 3 (London, 1938, 1939).

H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 [Vezelinst. T.N.O. (Delft), 1950].

R. W. Asmussen and B. Buchmann-Olsen, Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1949).

Hutchins, Stearns, and Sundstrom, Tappi 35, 342 (1952).

D. L. MacAdam, Tappi 38, 78 (1955).

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