Abstract

This is the report of Inter-Society Color Council Subcommittee on Problem 19 formed in 1953 to study the color technology of white surfaces. Physically, surfaces which appear white reflect strongly and diffusely throughout the visible spectrum. Psychophysically, whites occupy a volume without sharply defined boundaries in the top center of the color solid. Whiteness is the attribute of white surfaces which corresponds to their visual proximity to preferred white. Preferred white varies somewhat with changes of either observer or observing situation. Measurements and intercomparisons of the colors of whites are made to determine adequacies of match to standard and to determine compliance with color specifications. One-number reflectance measurements of whites are widely used as partial determinations of whiteness. There have been a number of investigations to find which formulas yield the most reliable measurements of whiteness from tristimulus values, but the whiteness scales which have resulted from these investigations have not enjoyed widespread commercial use.

© 1958 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 100, 266 (1935); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 18, 392 (1935).
  2. D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 103, 154 (1936); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 19, 359 (1936).
  3. H. Hemmendinger and J. M. Lambert, J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc. 30, 163 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. C. Hardy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 305 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Nickerson, Color measurement and its application to color grading of agricultural products, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. No. 580 (1946).
  6. E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942); D. Nickerson, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 39 (August21, 1950); and G. L. Buc, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 41(June9, 1952).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Gardner Laboratory, Bethesda, Maryland, Description and instructions for Hunter color and color difference meter (June, 1950); Van den Akker, Aprison, and Olson, Tappi 34, 143 A (1951); and R. S. Hunter, Direct-reading, photoelectric color and color-difference meter (In preparation).
  8. R. S. Hunter, Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters, Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. No. C429 (1942).
  9. Am. Soc. Testing Material Method E97–53T, 45-deg, 0-deg directional reflectance of opaque specimens by filter photometry, Am. Soc. Testing Materials (1953).
  10. Federal Specification TT-P-141b, Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of inspection, sampling and testing: Method 612.1 directional reflectance, Method 412.1 dry opacity, Method 613.1 yellowness and yellowing.
  11. (1944).
  12. (1948).
  13. (1950).
  14. Nickerson, Hunter, and Powell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 446 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 188 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. G. W. Harrison, Patra J.Nos. 2 and 3 (London, 1938, 1939).
  17. H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 [Vezelinst. T.N.O. (Delft), 1950].
  18. R. W. Asmussen and B. Buchmann-Olsen, Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1949).
  19. Hutchins, Stearns, and Sundstrom, Tappi 35, 342 (1952).
  20. D. L. MacAdam, Tappi 38, 78 (1955).

1955 (1)

D. L. MacAdam, Tappi 38, 78 (1955).

1953 (2)

Am. Soc. Testing Material Method E97–53T, 45-deg, 0-deg directional reflectance of opaque specimens by filter photometry, Am. Soc. Testing Materials (1953).

H. Hemmendinger and J. M. Lambert, J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc. 30, 163 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

Hutchins, Stearns, and Sundstrom, Tappi 35, 342 (1952).

1950 (3)

Nickerson, Hunter, and Powell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 446 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Gardner Laboratory, Bethesda, Maryland, Description and instructions for Hunter color and color difference meter (June, 1950); Van den Akker, Aprison, and Olson, Tappi 34, 143 A (1951); and R. S. Hunter, Direct-reading, photoelectric color and color-difference meter (In preparation).

H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 [Vezelinst. T.N.O. (Delft), 1950].

1949 (1)

R. W. Asmussen and B. Buchmann-Olsen, Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1949).

1946 (1)

D. Nickerson, Color measurement and its application to color grading of agricultural products, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. No. 580 (1946).

1942 (2)

R. S. Hunter, Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters, Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. No. C429 (1942).

E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942); D. Nickerson, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 39 (August21, 1950); and G. L. Buc, Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 41(June9, 1952).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 103, 154 (1936); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 19, 359 (1936).

1935 (2)

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 100, 266 (1935); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 18, 392 (1935).

A. C. Hardy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 305 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

Adams, E. Q.

Asmussen, R. W.

R. W. Asmussen and B. Buchmann-Olsen, Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1949).

Buchmann-Olsen, B.

R. W. Asmussen and B. Buchmann-Olsen, Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1949).

Friele, L. F. C.

H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 [Vezelinst. T.N.O. (Delft), 1950].

Hardy, A. C.

Harrison, V. G. W.

V. G. W. Harrison, Patra J.Nos. 2 and 3 (London, 1938, 1939).

Hemmendinger, H.

H. Hemmendinger and J. M. Lambert, J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc. 30, 163 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Hunter,

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters, Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. No. C429 (1942).

Hutchins,

Hutchins, Stearns, and Sundstrom, Tappi 35, 342 (1952).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 103, 154 (1936); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 19, 359 (1936).

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 100, 266 (1935); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 18, 392 (1935).

Lambert, J. M.

H. Hemmendinger and J. M. Lambert, J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc. 30, 163 (1953).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

Nickerson,

Nickerson, D.

D. Nickerson, Color measurement and its application to color grading of agricultural products, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. No. 580 (1946).

Powell,

Selling, H. J.

H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 [Vezelinst. T.N.O. (Delft), 1950].

Stearns,

Hutchins, Stearns, and Sundstrom, Tappi 35, 342 (1952).

Sundstrom,

Hutchins, Stearns, and Sundstrom, Tappi 35, 342 (1952).

Am. Soc. Testing Materials (1)

Am. Soc. Testing Material Method E97–53T, 45-deg, 0-deg directional reflectance of opaque specimens by filter photometry, Am. Soc. Testing Materials (1953).

Appl. Sci. Research (1)

H. J. Selling and L. F. C. Friele, Appl. Sci. Research B1, 453 [Vezelinst. T.N.O. (Delft), 1950].

Description and instructions for Hunter color and color difference meter (1)

Gardner Laboratory, Bethesda, Maryland, Description and instructions for Hunter color and color difference meter (June, 1950); Van den Akker, Aprison, and Olson, Tappi 34, 143 A (1951); and R. S. Hunter, Direct-reading, photoelectric color and color-difference meter (In preparation).

J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc. (1)

H. Hemmendinger and J. M. Lambert, J. Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc. 30, 163 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. No. C429 (1)

R. S. Hunter, Photoelectric tristimulus colorimetry with three filters, Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. No. C429 (1942).

Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. (2)

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 100, 266 (1935); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 18, 392 (1935).

D. B. Judd, Paper Trade J., Tech. Sec. 103, 154 (1936); also Tech. Assoc. Papers, Ser. 19, 359 (1936).

Tappi (2)

Hutchins, Stearns, and Sundstrom, Tappi 35, 342 (1952).

D. L. MacAdam, Tappi 38, 78 (1955).

Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1)

R. W. Asmussen and B. Buchmann-Olsen, Trans. Danish Acad. Tech. Sci. No. 9 (1949).

U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. No. 580 (1)

D. Nickerson, Color measurement and its application to color grading of agricultural products, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. No. 580 (1946).

Other (5)

V. G. W. Harrison, Patra J.Nos. 2 and 3 (London, 1938, 1939).

Federal Specification TT-P-141b, Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of inspection, sampling and testing: Method 612.1 directional reflectance, Method 412.1 dry opacity, Method 613.1 yellowness and yellowing.

(1944).

(1948).

(1950).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The surface-color solid with dotted lines enclosing approximately that volume at the top which contains white colors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrophotometric curves for four white surfaces selected at random: (1) cotton broadcloth, (2) newsprint paper, (3) porcelain enamel, and (4) interior paint.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Goniophotometric curves for 45° incidence of same four specimens used for Fig. 2: (1) cotton broadcloth, (2) newsprint paper, (3) porcelain enamel, and (4) interior paint.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dimensions of the rectangular L, a, b color solid: L—lightness, a—redness-greenness, b—yellowness-blueness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three lighting arrangements used for visual examination of white materials.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block diagrams showing (a) wavelength selecting devices and (b) geometric conditions used in instruments for the colors of white surfaces.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral character of five source-filter-photocell combinations used for color measurements of white surfaces.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Block diagram of Hunterlab Reflectometer used for measurement of fluorescence contribution to blue reflectance: L—lamp, N—ultraviolet absorbing filter before specimen, S—specimen, F—same filter after specimen absorbing reflected ultraviolet, but not ultraviolet converted to blue by fluorescence, B—blue filter, and P—photodetector.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Lightness-yellowness diagram showing by dotted quarter circles colors of equal whiteness by the Hunter equation,8 and by solid lines, colors of equal whiteness according to MacAdam.15

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Intercomparison of five slightly different L, a, and b coordinates systems, each based on an approximation to a “uniform color solid.” Illuminant is always CIE Illuminant C.

Tables Icon

Table III Commercial instruments regularly used for color measurements of whites.

Tables Icon

Table IV Reflectance measurements of white colors.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( R 700 - R 450 ) / R 700 .
( A - B ) / G as yellowness .
W = 100 - [ ( 100 - L ) 2 + ( a 2 + b 2 ) ] 1 2 .